In Slovakia, the LC exhaustively sets out the grounds for dismissal with notice; no other ground may be added (sec. 63 LC).
Those grounds can be divided into 1) economic reasons, 2) reasons related to the individual worker (disciplinary reasons, physical incapacity, poor performance...)
Sec. 63(1) LC reads as follows:
An employer may give notice to an employee only for the following reasons:
a) if the employer or part thereof ceases its operations or is relocated;
b) if an employee becomes redundant by virtue of a written decision of the employer or a competent body on changes in duties, technical equipment, reduction in the number of employees with the aim of increasing work efficiency, or on other organizational changes;
c) a medical opinion states that the employee's health condition has caused a long term loss of his/her ability to perform his/her previous work or if he/she can no longer perform such work due to an occupational disease or danger of such disease, or if the maximum permitted level of exposure has been reached at in the workplace, as determined by a decision of a competent public health body;
d) The employee
1. fails to meet the requirements set out by legal regulations for the performance of the agreed work,
2. ceases to fulfil the requirements pursuant to sec. 42 paragraph (2),
3. fails to fulfil the requirements for the proper performance of the agreed work determined by the employer in internal regulations, through no fault of the employer, or
4. does not satisfactorily fulfill the working tasks, and the employer has in the preceding six months, requested him in writing to rectify the poor performance, but the employee failed to do so within a reasonable period of time,
e) there are reasons on the part of the employee for which the employer might immediately terminate the employment relationship with him/her, or by virtue of less grave breaches of labour discipline; for less severe breaches of labour discipline; employment may be terminated with notice if, with respect to breach of labour discipline, only if the employee has been notified in writing in the preceding six months of the possibility to be dismissed.
Reasons justifying immediate termination are final conviction of an willful criminal offence and gross violation of labour discipline (see sec. 68 LC)
On the general prohibition of discrimination, see sec. 13 LC which refers to the principle of Equal Treatment contained in the Act No. 365/2004 Coll. of 20 May 2004 (Amended in 2007 and 2008) on Equal Treatment in Certain Areas and Protection against Discrimination. This Act prohibits discrimination in employment relations (including dismissal) on grounds of sex (which includes pregnancy, motherhood, sex or gender identification), religion or belief, race, nationality or ethnic origin, disability, age, sexual orientation, marital or family status, colour, language, political affiliation or other conviction, national or social origin, property, lineage or any other status. (See sec. 6 read together with sec. 2 and 2 a) of the Act)
Note, however, that the list of prohibited grounds contained in the Labour Code (sec. 13(2)) is more restrictive as it only includes: marital status, family status, skin colour, language, political or other conviction, trade union activity, national or social origin, property, lineage or other status.
[Note that article 1 of the Chapter on fundamental principles included at the beginning of the labour Code contains a wider list of prohibited grounds that includes state of health, disability, national or ethnic affiliation]
"Filing a complaint against the employer is included in sec. 13(3) LC which stipulates that "in the workplace, nobody may be persecuted or otherwise sanctioned in the performance of labour-law relations for submitting a complaint (...) against another employee or the employer."
In addition, sec. 64 LC expressly prohibits the employer to give notice to employees - subject to certain exceptions - during a "protection period", namely:
- at a time when the employee is declared temporarily incapable for work due to disease or accident, unless deliberately induced or caused under the influence of alcohol, narcotic substances or psychotropic, and within the period from submission of a proposal for institutional care or from entry into spa treatment up to the day of termination thereof,
- in case of conscription of the employee to perform extraordinary service in time of crisis, or in case of performance of alternative service,
- during the entire period of pregnancy, maternity leave, parental leave or in case a single-parent (male and female) takes care of a child under the age of three,
- during the leave granted for the performance of a public office,
- at a time an employee is on the basis of a medical opinion, certified as temporarily unfit for night work.
However, this prohibition of notice does not apply to cases of termination:
* for reasons justifying immediate termination unless concerning employee on maternity leave or on parental leave,
* for other breaches of labour discipline unless concerning a pregnant employee, an employee on maternity leave or on parental leave (male and female),
* in the event of cessation of activities or relocation of the employer's business,
* if the employee has lost by his/her own fault the preconditions for the performance of the agreed work pursuant to a special law.
See also sec. 240(7) LC: Employees' representatives which include trade union members, members of a works council or a works trustee, during their term in office and for one year after its termination, shall be protected against measures which could damage them, including the termination of the employment relationship and which could be motivated by their position or activity.