Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement
Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié):
The law does not require the employer to provide reasons to the employees when dismissing them.
However, in the event of collective dismissal, the reasons for it shall be given to the workers' representatives (art. 3, Act 1387/1983).
Employers can draft a social plan, but they are not obliged to do so (Law No. 1387/1983, art. 3(4)). However, during consultation, the parties should cover ways to avoid or reduce the need for dismissals and to mitigate their adverse effects (Law No. 1337/1983, art. 3(1); Law No. 1387/1983, art. 3(4)).
- Contracts of an indefinite duration: No grounds are required. They can be terminated by either party, at any time, with notice or without notice (Act 2112/1920 and 3198/1955). In addition, severance pay has to be paid by the employer, the amount of which varies depending on whether notice was given or not, is compulsory.
Although no grounds are required, this does not result in a total freedom of the employer to dismiss an employee for any reason since the employer shall act within the limits set by the general prohibition of any abuse of rights (art. 281 CC). If a Court holds that a dismissal constitutes an abuse of right, it will nullify it. According to case law, a dismissal "which is not justified by the well-meant interests of the employer is void" (i.e reasons not attributable to the dismissed employee such as incompetence, or economic reasons) (See: Yannakourou S., 2005, "The evolution of Labour Law in Greece" in European Commission, 2005, The Evolution of Labour Law 1992-2003, Volume 2, Luxembourg, p. 24).
In addition, the employer's freedom to dismiss employees is also limited by the existence of prohibited grounds and by the existence of a special protection against dismissal for certain categories of workers (see below).
FTC can be terminated by either party at any time, if there is a serious reason justifying such termination (art. 672 CC). In such cases, no compensation is payable.
état matrimonial, grossesse, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, race, couleur, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, origine sociale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, accomplissement du service militaire ou civil, identité de genre, origine ethnique
* Specific prohibitions of dismissal:
- The dismissal of a woman during her pregnancy and up to one year after giving birth is prohibited (Act No. 1302/1982). However, the dismissal can be valid if there is an important reason for it (i.e misconduct, severe negligence, poor performance...) (Art. 15 Act No 1483/1984).
- Members of the trade union Board and the founding members of a trade union cannot be dismissed during the period of their office and one year thereafter (Act No. 1264/1982). However, dismissal is permitted if it is justified by a specific reason indicated in the Law and if it is approved by the Committee for the Protection of Trade Union officials. Under Law No. 1264/1982, certain union committee members are protected against dismissal, and the number of protected members depends on the size of the workplace. Protected individuals can only be dismissed for a narrow range of circumstances including disclosing confidential information or threatening / violent / abusive behaviour. As a general rule, dismissal based on trade union activities and membership is prohibited.
- Any dismissal which takes place while the employee is performing military duties is null and void (Act No. 3514/1928)
- The dismissal of a worker who is on annual leave is prohibited and will be considered null and void (Art. 5 and 6, Act 539/45)
* Anti-discrimination provisions:
-The Act No. 4443/2016 implementing the EU Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC prohibits in its Art. 1 any discrimination on the the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, color, religious or other beliefs, disability, age or sexual orientation, gender identity, sex and family or social status in the field of employment. This includes a prohibition on discriminatory dismissals based on any of these grounds, see Art. 3(1)(c) of the act.