CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: aucune limitation

Remarks

Art. 13 ECL: no material reasons required.
The ECL only provides for procedural requirements: a FTC contract can be concluded once the employer and the worker have reached a consensus through consultations. In addition, according to art. 14 ECL, "if an Employer fails to conclude a written labor contract with an employee within one (1) year from the date the employee commences work, they shall be deemed to have entered into an open-ended labor contract".

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2

Remarks

Art. 14(3) ECL :" (..) An open-ended labor contract may be concluded between an Employer and an employee upon consultation. If an employee proposes or agrees to renew and conclude a labor contract in any of the following circumstances, an open-ended labor contract shall be concluded, unless the employee requests the conclusion of a fixed-term labor contract instead:
(3) Where a labor contract was concluded as a fixed-term labor contract on two consecutive occasions and the employee, in the absence of any of the circumstances stipulated in Article 39 and items (1) and (2) of Article 40 of this law, renews such contract."

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 120mois

Remarks

Art. 14(1) ECL:
"(..) An open-ended labor contract may be concluded between an Employer and an employee upon consultation. If an employee proposes or agrees to renew and conclude a labor contract in any of the following circumstances, an open-ended labor contract shall be concluded, unless the employee requests the conclusion of a fixed-term labor contract instead:
(1) The employee has been working for the Employer for ten (10) consecutive years".

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 6 mois

Remarks

Art. 19 ECL.
The maximum duration of the probationary period varies according to the the duration of the employment contract, as follows:
- term ranging from 3 months to less than 1 year: maximum one month;
- term ranging from more than 1 year to less than 3 years: maximum two months;
- more than three years and open-ended contracts: maximum 6 months.
No probation period shall be specified in an employment contract concluded for the completion of specific task or an employment contract concluded for less than three months.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement Non

Remarks

The ECL does not establish any obligation on the part of the employer to state the reasons for dismissal to the employee. However, prior to dismissing a worker, the employer shall notify the labour union of the reasons: art. 43 ECL.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur, capacité du travailleur, motifs économiques

Remarks

Art. 40 ECL (ordinary dismissal): list of reasons related to the worker's conduct, worker's capacity, economic reasons.
See also Art. 39 ECL (summary dismissal).

See also Art. 18 and 19 of Implementing Regulations of the PRC Employment Contracts Law.

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, congé de matérnité, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, sexe, religion, origine sociale, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, origine ethnique

Remarks

- Art. 42 ECL prohibits dismissal of :
(1) a worker who is engaged in operations exposing him to occupational disease hazards and has not undergone a pre-departure occupational health check-up, or is suspected of having contracted an occupational disease and is being diagnosed or under medical observation;
(2) a worker who has been confirmed as having lost or partially lost his capacity to work due to an occupational disease contracted or a work-related injury sustained with the Employer (3) a worker who has contracted an illness or sustained an injury, and the set period of medical care therefore has not expired;
(4) a female employee in her pregnancy, confinement or nursing period;
(5) a worker who has been working for the Employer continuously for not less than 15 years and is less than 5 years away from his legal retirement age;
(6) a worker who finds himself in other circumstances stipulated in laws or administrative statutes.
See also art. 26 of the Law of the People¿s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women which prohibits the dismissal of any female employee on the grounds of marriage, pregnancy, maternity leave or nursing unless the employee requests the termination. Dismissal on the ground of pregnancy is also prohibited in the art. 4 of the Regulations Concerning the Labor Protection of Female Staff and Workers (1988).
- Dismissal based on trade union activities is prohibited: art. 52 (1) of the Trade Union Law of the People's Republic of China, 1992 as amended by Order of the President of the People's Republic of China, No 62, 27 October 2001 and last amended on 27 August, 2009.

- Ethnic origin, race, sex, and religious belief and disability are not listed as unlawful grounds for dismissal in the ECL. However, they are listed as prohibited grounds of discrimination in employment in article 3 of the Employment Promotion Law [EPL]
(see also art. 12 of the Labour Law; art. 27 EPL on gender equality; art. 29 EPL and 38 of the PRC Law on the protection of disabled persons, 1990 as last amended on 24 April, 2008).
- Art. 31 EPL: Rural workers who move to urban areas to seek employment shall enjoy equal labour rights to urban workers and shall not be subjected to discriminatory restrictions.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs avec une invalidité confirmée, travailleurs seniors/à la veille de la retraite, travailleurs en congé temporaire suite à une maladie professionnelle ou un accident du travail

Remarks

Under art. 42 ECL, it is prohibited to dismiss:
(1) a worker who is engaged in operations exposing him to occupational disease hazards and has not undergone a pre-departure occupational health check-up, or is suspected of having contracted an occupational disease and is being diagnosed or under medical observation;
(2) a worker who has been confirmed as having lost or partially lost his capacity to work due to an occupational disease contracted or a work-related injury sustained with the Employer
(3) a worker who has contracted an illness or sustained an injury, and the set period of medical care therefore has not expired;
(4) a female employee in her pregnancy, confinement or nursing period;
(5) a worker who has been working for the Employer continuously for not less than 15 years and is less than 5 years away from his legal retirement age.

For worker's representatives, see art. 52 (2) of the Trade Union Law :
If the labour contract of a worker or staff member is terminated due to his participation in trade union activities, the administrative department for labour shall order that the victim be reinstated, his remuneration payable during the period of the termination of the labour contract be made up, or that a compensation two times the amount of his annual income be given.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Art. 40 ECL.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Art. 40 ECL: The notice period shall be 30 days regardless of the job tenure.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Art. 40 ECL.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 43 ECL.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

However, according to art. 43 ECL, if the employer has violated the laws, administrative regulations, or provisions of the employment contract, the trade union has the right to demand that the employer rectifies the matter. The employer shall consider the trade union's opinion and notify it in writing on how it handled the matter.

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): More than 20 employees or less than 20, accounting for at least 10% of the total number of employees.

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL (30 days in advance).

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL (30 days in advance).

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL.

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL.

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

Remarks

Art. 41 ECL: preferential right to re-employment for 6 months.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

See art. 46 and 47 ECL:
Severance pay amounts to one month's pay per year of service. For the purpose of calculating severance pay, an employment period ranging from 6 months to 1 year is to be counted as one year. If the employee has worked for less than 6 months, he will be entitled to half a month's pay.

If the monthly wage of a worker exceeds three times the average monthly wages of employees in the municipality where the employer is located, severance pay shall be paid to him at the rate of three times the local average monthly wages and and shall be for not more than 12 years of work.

See also Art. 27 of Implementing Regulations of the PRC Employment Contracts Law.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 4 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 10 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 20 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

Same as severance pay: see art. 46 (4) ECL read together with art. 47 ECL.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 4 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 10 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 20 mois

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): Twice the rate of the severance pay

Remarks

Art. 48 ECL

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

Art. 48 ECL.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

Remarks

See art. 79 LL and art. 5 Labour Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law (2007, entered into force in May 2008)
Art. 79 LL does not provide for preliminary mandatory conciliation, but only gives the parties the option to turn to a mediation and/or arbitration committee before going to Court.
The new Labour Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law regulates labour disputes settlement. (See text: http://www.lawinfochina.com/display.aspx?id=6584&lib=law)

See secondary sources:
http://www.dwt.com/LearningCenter/Advisories?find=22301

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

Remarks

Arbitration is mandatory in the event of an individual labour dispute.
The parties can only go to court, if they do not agree with the arbitration outcome, within 15 days from the date the award is communicated. See art. 5 and 50 of the Labor Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

Remarks

Arbitration is mandatory in the event of an individual labour disputes. Art. 79 LL, see also art. 5 and 50 of the Labour Dispute Mediation and Arbitration Law (2007, entered into force in May 2008).