CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

Art. 18 LC

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 60meses

Remarks

Art. 18 LC

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Art. 28 LC: The probationary period cannot exceed 3 months for workers and 6 months for managerial employees.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Art. 40 and art. 44 LC

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas

Remarks

Art. 42 LC provides that the reasons for dismissal can be the following:
- 1) liquidation of the enterprise or termination of activities by an individual employer;
- 2) a reduction in the number or staff of workers, including in connection with changes in production technology, organization of labor, reduction in the volume of work;
- 3) the employee’s inconsistencies with the position held or the work performed due to insufficient qualifications, including those confirmed by the certification results;
- 4) change of the owner of the enterprise (in relation to the head of the enterprise, his deputies and the chief accountant) in accordance with the first part of Article 37 of this Code;
- 5) absence from work for more than four months in a row due to temporary disability, not counting the period of maternity leave, unless the legislation of Turkmenistan establishes a longer term for maintaining a place of work (position) for a specific disease. For employees who have lost their ability to work due to labor injury or occupational disease, the place of work (position) is maintained until the restoration of working capacity or the establishment of disability;
- 6) systematic non-performance by an employee without valid excuses of employment duties assigned to him by the employment contract or the internal labor regulations of the enterprise, if the employee has previously been subject to disciplinary measures;
- 7) absenteeism, including absence from work without good reason for more than three hours during the working day;
- 8) appearance at work in a state of alcoholic, narcotic or other toxic intoxication;
- 9) the disclosure of secrets protected by the legislation of Turkmenistan (state, commercial, official and other), which became known to the employee in connection with the performance of his job duties;
- 10) commission at the place of work of embezzlement of property, embezzlement, its deliberate destruction or damage established by a valid court verdict or decision of the body whose competence includes the imposition of an administrative penalty;
- 11) violation by an employee of labor protection requirements, if this violation entailed grave consequences (work accident, accident, catastrophe) or deliberately created a real threat of such consequences;
- 12) in case of revealing the fact of submission by the employee to the employer of forged documents or knowingly false information when concluding an employment contract;
- 13) stipulated by the employment contract with the head of the enterprise, members of the executive body of the enterprise;
- 14) in other cases established by this Code.

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, raza, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, discapacidad, lengua, propriedad, lugar de residencia, origen étnico

Remarks

Art. 7 LC: prohibition of discrimination in employment based on: nationality, race, sex, origin, property or employment status, residence, language, age, religion, political beliefs, party affiliation or lack of affiliation to any party.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares, menores

Remarks

Art. 241 LC
Art. 257 LC

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 44 LC

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.
  • Todos: 2 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 44(2) LC

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

In addition, Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 44(6) LC: The employer must inform and consult with the trade union and inform the public employment service - two months in advance - about expected mass redundancies.

In addition, Art. 45 LC: Any dismissal for economic reasons or worker's incapacity must be authorised by the trade union or another body of workers' representatives.

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Art. 54 LC: During collective redundancies, the workers with higher productivity and qualification have the preferential right to keep their job. At equal productivity and qualification, the preference not to be dismissed is given to such categories of workers as workers with the tenure of at least 10 years in the entreprise, people with disabilities, workers with two and more dependants, young specialists etc.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...):

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0.5 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Art. 54 LC

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 2 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 56 LC

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Art. 56 LC: The judge is free to decide on compensation for unfair dismissal, whose amount cannot be less than three-month wages.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Article 56 of the Labour Code

Reinstatement is the primary remedy for unfair or unlawful dismissal. In addition, the employer has to pay back all foregone earnings, as well as expenses associated with hiring a lawyer. Only in case the employee requests replacing reinstatement by a compensation, can the judge award paying such compensation (the payback and the expenses are still awarded in addition to the compensation).

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

Art. 370 LC established the order of creating a commission for labour disputes (collective).