CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

Article 59 of the Labour Code lists the cases where the use of fixed-term contracts are authorised

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

Article 58 of the Labour Code

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 60meses

Remarks

Article 58 of the Labour Code

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Article 70 of the Labor Code: the probationary period cannot exceed 3 months for all workers and 6 months for some managers and financial officers.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Article 81 of the Labour Code

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): razones económicas, conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador

Remarks

Article 81 of the Labour Code

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, situación económica, lengua, origen étnico

Remarks

Article 3 of the Labour Code prohibits discrimination at work on several grounds.
Article 261 of the Labour Code prohibits to dismiss a pregnant worker and provides some protection against dismissals to women workers with children.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares, menores

Remarks

Article 261 of the Labour Code prohibits to dismiss a pregnant worker except in the event of enterprise liquidation. It also prohibits the dismissal of women with children under three years old, single mother raising a child under fourteen years old (disabled child under eighteen), workers raising those children without a mother except on certain limited grounds ( liquidation and grounds related to the misconduct of the worker).

Except in the event of enterprise liquidation, workers under 18 can only be dismissed with the authorization of the Labour Inspectorate and the Commission for the rights of minors (art. 269 of the Labour Code).

Articles 374-376 LC elaborate on the procedure on how to dismiss elected workers’ representatives and provide additional guarantees to them.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Article 84-1 of the Labour Code

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Article 180 LC provides that the employees should be notified no less than two months if the reason for the dismissal is liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise.

Moreover:
•if a fixed-term contract for a period of up to 2 months is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 3 calendar days for the reasons of expiry of the contract (Article 79 LC) and for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise (Article 292 LC);
•if a seasonal work contract is terminated, a notice must be sent not less than 7 calendar days (Article 296 LC)
•if the employee is a migrant worker or a stateless person, a notice regarding the termination of the contract for liquidation or downsizing of the enterprise reasons must be sent not less than 3 calendar days before the dismissal (Article 327.6 LC)

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Article 180 of the Labour Code provides on the pay in lieu of notice in case of dismissals for economic reasons.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

Article 82 of the Labour Code: in case of termination of employment for economic reasons or for worker's conduct or performance, an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): Article 82 of the Labour Code provides that collective dismissals for economic reasons are to be defined by collective agreements at the branch and/or territorial level.

In addition to several branch and territorial collective agreements, Council of Ministers' Decree of 1993 No. 99 defines collective dismissals from 50 dismissals upwards within the period of 30 calendar days.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Article 180 of the Labour Code

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Under Articles 21 and 25 of the Law on Employment, the employer has to inform the public service of employment three months in advance about any expected collective dismissals for economic reasons.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Article 82 of the Labour Code: the employer must inform the trade union about any expected reduction of the workforce for economic reasons 2 months in advance and 3 months in advance in case of expected collective dismissals for economic reasons.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Remarks

However, pursuant to Article 7.4) of the Law on Employment and Council of Ministers' Decree of 1993 No. 99, the employer's decision on collective dismissals for economic reasons may be suspended by the local authorities up to 6 months, upon proposal of the public service of employment and trade unions to take into account the employment situation at the labour market.

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

Article 82 of the Labour Code: an employer cannot dismiss a worker, member of a trade union, without having taken into account the motivated opinion of the entreprise trade union.

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Article 179 of the Labour Code "Preferential right to retain the job on reducing the number of staff of the organization":

On reducing the number of staff, employees having higher qualifications and higher productivity are granted a preferential right to retain the job.

If employees have equal qualifications and productivity rates the preference is given to:
- married employees having two or more dependants (disabled members of the family who are dependent on the employee for support or who receive assistance from him which is the only source of means of subsistence for them);
- employees in whose families there are no other employees having independent earnings;
- employees who got a maiming in work or a professional disease in this organization;
- invalids of the Great Patriotic War and invalids of military actions in defending the Motherland;
- employees sent by the employer to improve their qualifications while continuing their work.

The collective agreement may stipulate other categories of employees who may be granted the preferential right to retain the post while having equal qualifications and productivity rates with others.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

Article 81 of the Labour Code

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Article 178 of the Labour Code: the worker is entitled to a two-week salary severance pay in some cases of dismissals.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0.5 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Article 178 of the Labour Code: any worker dismissed for economic reasons is entitled to a redundancy pay whose amount is one-month average salary. In addition the worker is entitled to an average salary during three months if the worker applied to the employment agency within two weeks after dismissal and was not placed in a job.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Article 394 of the Labour Code

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Article 394 of the Labour Code

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

Remarks

Article 391 of the Labour Court

Arbitraje: No

Duración del procedimiento:

Remarks

Article 392 of the Labour Code: the worker may bring a complaint about the dismissal to the court within one month after the date of the termination of his or her employment.

Article 154 of the Code of civil procedure provides that any case on dismissal must be considered within one month.

Carga de la prueba: empleador