CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

Art. 23 provides that an employment contract shall be either for a specified or an indefinite term.
According to art. 23.2 LC, an contract can be concluded
- for a permanent position for an indefinite term,
- for a specified term agreed upon by the parties;
- in the following cases: temporary replacement of a worker, seasonal or temporary work and probationary or training period in the case of an apprentice.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No statutory limitation on the number of renewals. The LC only provides that if the employee continues performing work after the expiry of the term specified in the FTC and if the parties do not want to terminate such contract, the contract will be deemed renewed for the term for the same period (art. 23.3 LC).

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

The LC provides for a maximum duration of 5 years for a single contract but does not place any limitation on the maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs (art. 25.2 LC).

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 3 meses

Remarks

Section 23.2.3. LC was amended by Law of 21 April 2017

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

No express obligation to indicate the reasons for dismissals. However, this might be inferred from the fact that the law provides a limited list of valid reasons for dismissing an employee (art. 40 LC)

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas

Remarks

The LC provides for a list a valid reasons justifying termination at the initiative of the employer, as follows (art. 40.1 LC):
- dissolution of a branch or a unit of the undertaking, reduction of the number of employees, elimination of a position within the company;
- failure to meet the job requirements due to the lack of professional qualifications or skill, or health reasons;
- the employee has reached the age of 60 and is eligible to receive pension;
- repeated breaches of the disciplinary rules or serious breaches which automatically entail termination of employment according to the provisions of the labour contract;
- an employee in charge of assets and money has wrongfully acted or failed to act and as a result of which he/she has lost the trust of the employer;
- employee is elected or appointed to perform another salaried work;
- occurrence of other grounds set forth in the individual contract.

In addition, an employee can be dismissed for the following reasons (art. 41 LC):
- the employer, after an evaluation, that the employee did not fulfil the results of the work to be performed under the contract without a valid reason, or did not do satisfactory work;
- the employee has entered into a simultaneous employment agreement or contract with another employer;
- the employer has transferred his or her right of ownership to another person permanently;
- it is proven that the employee has spent inefficiently or wasted the assets which were transferred to the employee under the individual contract or that the employee has exceeded his/her authority granted by the employer.

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, responsabilidades familiares, raza, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales

Remarks

Art. 7 LC prohibits discrimination in labour relations based nationality, race, sex, social origin or status, wealth, religion, or ideology.
See also art. 100 LC which prohibits the dismissal of pregnant women and mothers with children under the age of 3 except in the event of liquidation of the business or in the event of serious misconduct (repeated breach of disciplinary rules or serious breach of the employment contract and loss of trust in an employee responsible for assets or money due to an act or omission). This protection also applies to a single father with a child under the age of 3.
See also, art. 6 of the Law of Trade Union Rights.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares

Remarks

- Art. 100 LC prohibits the dismissal of pregnant women and mothers with children under the age of 3 except in the event of liquidation of the business or in the event of serious misconduct (repeated breach of disciplinary rules or serious breach of the employment contract and loss of trust in an employee responsible for assets or money due to an act or omission). This protection also applies to a single father with a child under the age of 3.
- In addition, the law prohibits the employer from dismissing or otherwise punish elected trade union representatives or elected non-union representatives who participate in a negotiation but who have not been relieved from their primary duties without obtaining the permission to do so from a competent authority. This protection applies to the entire negotiation process and until 1 year after negotiations have been completed (art. 12.8 LC).

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

This can be inferred from art. 43.3 LC: the employer shall provide the dismissed employee with the dismissal decision.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

The employer is required to give at least one month's notice to any employee who has been dismissed on the following grounds:
- failure to meet the job requirements due to the lack of professional qualifications or skills or for health reasons; or
- dissolution of a branch or a unit of the undertaking, reduction of the number of employees, elimination of a position within the company. (art. 40.5 LC)

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • Todos: 1 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: No

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No statutory definition of collective dismissals.
Art. 42.2 regulating severance pay refers to "a general termination of a large number of employees".
The LC allows an employer to dismiss an employee on the grounds of dissolution of a branch or a unit of the undertaking, reduction of the number of employees, elimination of a position within the company.

Remarks

Art. 40.1.1 LC.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

- There is no general statutory obligation to undertake prior consultations with the employee's representatives before carrying out collective dismissals.
- However, the law provides that in case of mass redundancies, the employer and the employees representatives shall agree on redundancy payment trough negotiations (art. 42.2 LC).
- Consultation with the employee's representatives is mandatory in the event of the dissolution of a business entity resulting in the termination of all employees. The workers' representatives must be informed 45 days prior to the dissolution (art. 40.5 LC)

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

- Consultation with the employee's representatives is mandatory in the event of the dissolution of a business entity resulting in the termination of all employees. The workers' representatives must be informed 45 days prior to the dissolution (art. 40.5 LC)

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

There is no general regulation of collective dismissals. The only provision of the LC which refers to collective dismissal is art. 42.2 on severance pay, according to which "in the case of a general termination of a large number of employees, additional compensation to be paid by an employer to the employees shall be agreed to by the employer and representatives of the employees".

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

The employer must pay severance in an amount equal to at least 1 month's average salary in the event the employee was terminated on the following grounds (art. 42 LC):
- the employee has been called to active duty in the army;
- the employer's business entity or organisation, or a branch or unit has been dissolved, or the job or position within it has been discontinued or the number of employees has been reduced;
- the employee fails to meet the job's requirements due to the lack of professional qualifications or skill, or health reason.
- the employee reached 60 years of age and is eligible to receive a pension.
An employee dismissed for conduct-related reasons is not entitled to severance pay.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

See severance pay (art. 42 LC). Severance pay of 1 month's average salary is payable in the event of termination for economic reasons (the employer's business entity or organisation, or a branch or unit has been dissolved, or the job or position within it has been discontinued, or the number of employees has been reduced).
Art. 42.2 LC also provides that in the event of termination of a large number of employees, additional compensation to be paid by an employer to the employees shall be agreed to by the employer and the employees' representatives.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 1 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): No statutory compensation following unlawful dismissal: reinstatement is the only remedy provided in the LC.
Any reinstated employee will be entitled to back pay

Remarks

Art. 69 LC on back pay.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 36.1.2 LC.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

No statutory preliminary mandatory conciliation for individual labour disputes.
(However, collective labour disputes shall be first submitted to "intermediaries" for conciliation: see art. 117 LC).

Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

Remarks

Individual labour disputes are either settled by the Labour Dispute Settlement Commission or by ordinary courts. According to art. 128.1.2 LC, ordinary courts have exclusive jurisdiction over wrongful dismissal complaints (art. 128 LC). Any such dispute shall be referred to the court within 1 month from the receipt of the employer's dismissal decision.

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

Arbitration is only available for the settlement of collective labour disputes (see: art. 118 LC and The Labour Administration Rules of 2001)