CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2

Remarks

Article 34 of the Labour Code: the duration of a fixed-term contract cannot exceed 2 years and it may be renewed only once for the maximum duration of one year.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 36meses

Remarks

Article 34 of the Labour Code: the duration of a fixed-term contract cannot exceed 2 years and it may be renewed only once for the maximum duration of one year.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Article 37 of the Labour Code.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Article 48 of the Labour Code.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa

Remarks

Article 43 of the Labour Code requires a valid reason connected with the capacity or conduct of the worker or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking, establishment or service.

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, responsabilidades familiares, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, estatus VIH

Remarks

Article 2 of the Labour Code: general prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, national or social origin including with respect to disciplinary measures and dismissal.

Article 44 of the Labour Code (former art. 46) provides a list of reasons which cannot consitute valid reasons for termination:
- trade-union membership or non-membership and trade-union activities;
- race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion or belief, political or philosophical opinion, nationality or social origin;
- seeking office as, or acting or having acted in the capacity of, a workers' representative;
- the filing of a complaint or the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws;
- absence from work during maternity leave or temporary absence from work because of illness or injury;
New in June 2012: Additional grounds have been introduced:
- HIV status, whether real or perceived;
- having reported or testified about sexual or psychological harassment (workplace bullying) by an employer or his representative.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

- Workers' representatives: article 203 of the Labour Code: any dismissal of a workers' representative must be approved by the Labour Tribunal. [New in June 2012: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 183, now art. 203), and the new LC introduced new provisions: the new LC provides that the court's decision must be made within a period of one month].
- Women on maternity leave: article 125 of the Labour Code: no worker can be dismissed during maternity leave.
- In addition, the LC establishes a special protection against dismissal for widows: article 125 (former art. 121) of the Labour Code : any woman who just lost her husband must suspend work for 4 months and 10 days and cannot be dismissed during this period.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Article 48 of the Labour Code [Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 50, now art. 48), but its content has remained unchanged].

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): the period of notice is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (previously: the Supreme Council of Work) to take into account, namely, worker's tenure and professional categories. No Decree has been adopted as of 2019.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 0 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Article 52 of the Labour Code (former art. 54). [Note: article 52 of the new LC now explicitly uses the term "compensation in lieu of notice" to refer to such payment].

Notificación a la administración: No

Remarks

However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Remarks

However, any dismissal of a worker's representative shall be notified to and approved by the Labour Tribunal (article 203 of the Labour Code [former art. 183]).

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): There is no statutory definition of collective dismissal.
The Labour Code established a regime which applies to any dismissal justified by the reduction of the activity of the undertaking or an internal reorganization.

Remarks

Article 49 of the Labour Code.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Article 49 of the Labour Code: mandatory notification to the labour inspector (former art. 51).

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Article 49 of the Labour Code: Mandatory notification to the workers' representatives

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Article 49 of the Labour Code: prior to a dismissal motivated by a decrease in the activity of the undertaking or internal reorganization, the employer must establish an order of dismissal in particular taking into account the professional qualifications, seniority and family responsibilities of workers.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: Si

Remarks

Article 50 of the Labour Code - during 2 years after the dismissal for economic reasons. [Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art.52 now art. 50), but its content has remained unchanged].

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): severance pay for all types of dismissals is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (former Supreme Labour Council) and must take into account, in particular, worker's tenure and professional categories.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Article 50 of the Labour Code: severance pay for all types of dismissals is to be defined by decree after consultation of the Supreme Labour Council to take into account, namely, worker's tenure and professional categories.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

Article 48 of the Labour Code (former art. 50): severance pay and redundancy pay are to be defined by decree after consultation of the Advisory Council of Labour and Employment (former Supreme Labour Council) and must take into account, in particular, worker's tenure and professional categories.

No Decree has been adopted as of this year.

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Article 44 of the Labour Code

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Article 44 of the Labour Code: reinstatement shall be the primary remedy.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

Article 47 of the Labour Code (former art.49): before going to the court, any worker who believes he/she has been unfairly dismissed has to challenge his or her dismissal before the labour inspector. The Labour Inspector examines the alleged reasons for the dismissal and any other circumstances of the case and make recommendations in order to reach an amicable settlement including reinstatement.

Articles 220 and 226 of the Labour Code (former art. 200 and 206): mandatory pre-trial conciliation by the labour tribunal.

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Articles 44 and 212 of the Labour Code (former art.46 and 192).

Arbitraje: No