CDD regulados: No

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contracts.
Only temporary and casual employment are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

(Note: Art. 78: "temporary worker" means a worker who is employed for a continuous period of not less than one month and is not a permanent worker or employed for a work that is seasonal in character; "casual worker" means a worker engaged on a work which is seasonal or intermittent and not for a continuous period of more than 6 months and whose remuneration is calculated on a daily basis".)

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contract.
Only temporary and casual workers are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses):

Remarks

No statutory maximum duration. The Labour Act refers to a "reasonable duration". Probationary period is generally provided in collective agreement

*Art. 66 LA refers to workers serving a probation or qualifying period of employment of reasonable duration determined in advance.
*Art. 98 d) LA : A collective agreement may include provisions on the period of probation and conditions on probation.

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

No legal provision requiring justification to the employee.
See however art. 63 (4) a) LA:
"A termination may be unfair if the employer fails to prove that the reason for the termination is fair".

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas

Remarks

Art. 62 LC: "A termination of a worker's employment is fair if the contract of employment is terminated by the employer on any of the following grounds:
(a) that the worker is incompetent or lacks the qualification in relation to the work for which the worker is employed;
(b) the proven misconduct of the worker;
(c) redundancy under section 65;
(d) due to legal restriction imposed on the worker prohibiting the worker from performing the work for which he or she is employed".

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, licencia de maternidad, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, origen étnico

Remarks

Art. 63 LA.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

Art 57(8): An employer shall not dismiss a woman worker because of her absence from work on maternity leave.
Art. 12 WA: “A whistleblower shall not be subjected to victimisation by the employer of the whistleblower or by a fellow employee or by another person because a disclosure has been made.” According to Art. 12(2), a whistleblower is subjected to victimisaton if they are dismissed.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 17(3) LA: Notice of termination must be in writing.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 17 (1), (2) LA:
* The notice period varies according to the length of the contract as follows:
- 1 month's notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of 3 years or more;
- 2 weeks' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of less than 3 years;
- 7 days' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract from week to week.
* A contract of employment determinable at the will of the party may be terminated at the close of anyday without notice.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 18 (4) LA: Notwithstanding section 17(1), either party to a contract of employment may terminate the contract without notice if that party pays to the other party a sum equal to the amount of remuneration which would have accrued to the worker during the period of the notice.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No legal definition of a collective dismissal. However, Art 65(1) LA defines a redundancy as "the introduction of major changes in production, programme, organization, structure or technology of an undertaking that are likely to entail terminations of employment of workers in the undertaking.

Remarks

Art. 65 LA. No reference to any number of employees concerned.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA: “the employer shall consult the trade union concerned on measures to be taken to avert or minimize the termination as well as measures to mitigate the adverse effects of any terminations on the workers concerned such as finding alternative employment.u201d

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) a) LA: “the employer shall provide in writing to the Chief Labour Officer and the trade union concerned, not later than three months before the contemplated changes, all relevant information including the reasons for any termination, the number and categories of workers likely to be affected and the period within which any termination is to be carried out.u201d

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) (a) LA: . the employer shall provide in writing to the Chief Labour Officer and the trade union concerned, not later than three months before the contemplated changes, all relevant information including the reasons for any termination, the number and categories of workers likely to be affected and the period within which any termination is to be carried out.u201d

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA: “the employer shall consult the trade union concerned on measures to be taken to avert or minimize the termination as well as measures to mitigate the adverse effects of any terminations on the workers concerned such as finding alternative employment.u201d

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA: the employer must consider measures aiming at averting dismissals and mitigating their adverse effects such as finding alternative employment must be examined during consultation with the trade union.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

Art. 65 (2) provides that a worker who has been made redundant “is entitled to be paid by the undertaking at which that worker was immediately employed prior to the close down, arrangement or amalgamation, compensation, in this section referred to as “redundancy pay”.
Subsection (3): “In determining whether a worker has suffered any diminution in his or her terms and conditions of employment, account shall be taken of the past services and accumulated benefits, if any, of the worker in respect of the employment with the undertaking before the changes were carried out.”
Subsection 4: “the amount of redundancy pay and the terms and conditions of payment are matters which are subject to negotiation between the employer or a representative of the employer on the one hand and the worker or the trade union concerned on the other,”

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 64 (2) c) LA.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 64 (2) LA provides that the court may (a) order the employer to re-instate the worker from the date of the termination of employment; or (b) order the employer to re-employ the worker, either in the work for which the worker was employed before the termination or in other reasonably suitable work on the same terms and conditions enjoyed by the worker before the termination.
Art. 14(3) WA provides that the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice may order the reinstatement of an employee that has been unfairly dismissed by an employer in retaliation to whistleblowing.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 64 LA.
The competent body is the National Labour Commission. It shall exercise adjudicating and dispute settlement functions in complete independence (art. 138 LA). Moreover, in settling an industrial dispute, the Commission shall have the same enforcing powers as the High Court and enjoy the same privileges and immunities in regard to its proceedings (art. 139 LA).
Art, 13(1) WA: “A whistleblower who honestly and reasonably believes that that whistleblower has been subjected to victimisation or learns of a likely subjection to victimisation because a disclosure has been made, may in the first instance make a complaint to the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice”.

Arbitraje: Si

Remarks

Mediation: art. 154 LA.
Arbitration: art. 157 LA.

% de controversias relativas al despido en relación al número total de controversias: 51.7

Remarks

Figures for the year 2018.
This figure includes:
- Redundancy/lay-Off/ Severance pay: (10.6%)
- Summary dismissals (22.7%)
- Unfair terminations : (26.3%)

Source: Ministry of Employment and Labour Relations Statistical Report 2018