CDD regulados: No

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contracts.
Only temporary and casual employment are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

(Note: Art. 78: "temporary worker" means a worker who is employed for a continuous period of not less than one month and is not a permanent worker or employed for a work that is seasonal in character; "casual worker" means a worker engaged on a work which is seasonal or intermittent and not for a continuous period of more than 6 months and whose remuneration is calculated on a daily basis".)

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

The Labour Act does not refer to any specific legal regime for the use of fixed-term contract.
Only temporary and casual workers are regulated by special provisions (art. 73 to 78 LA)

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba:

Remarks

No statutory maximum duration. The Labour Act refers to a "reasonable duration". Probationary period is generally provided in collective agreement

*Art. 66 LA refers to workers serving a probation or qualifying period of employment of reasonable duration determined in advance.
*Art. 98 d) LA : A collective agreement may include provisions on the period of probation and conditions on probation.

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

No legal provision requiring justification to the employee.
See however art. 63 (4) a) LA:
"A termination may be unfair if the employer fails to prove that the reason for the termination is fair".

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas

Remarks

Art. 62 LC: "A termination of a worker's employment is fair if the contract of employment is terminated by the employer on any of the following grounds:
(a) that the worker is incompetent or lacks the qualification in relation to the work for which the worker is employed;
(b) the proven misconduct of the worker;
(c) redundancy under section 65;
(d) due to legal restriction imposed on the worker prohibiting the worker from performing the work for which he or she is employed".

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, licencia de maternidad, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, origen étnico

Remarks

Art. 63 LA.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): ningún grupo protegido

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 17(3) LA: Notice of termination must be in writing.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 17 (1), (2) LA:
* The notice period varies according to the length of the contract as follows:
- 1 month's notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of 3 years or more;
- 2 weeks' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract of less than 3 years;
- 7 days' notice (or pay in lieu of notice) in the case of a contract from week to week.
* A contract of employment determinable at the will of the party may be terminated at the close of anyday without notice.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 17 (1) and 18 (4) LA.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No legal definition. The LA refers to "the introduction of major changes in production, programme, organization, structure or technology of an undertaking that are likely to entail terminations of employment of workers in the undertaking".

Remarks

Art. 65 LA. No reference to any number of employees concerned.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) a) LA: 3 months in advance.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

Art. 65 (1) b) LA: measures aiming at averting dismissals and mitigating their adverse effects such as finding alternative employment must be examined during consultation with the trade union.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 mes(es)

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 mes(es)

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 mes(es)

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

1) Individual dismissals (not based on economic reasons): no severance pay.
2) Economic dismissals: redundancy payment subject to negotiation between the employer and the worker or the trade union concerned. (Art. 65 (4) LA)

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 64 (2) c) LA.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 64 (2) a) LA.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 64 LA.
The competent body is the National Labour Commission. It shall exercise adjudicating and dispute settement functions in complete independence (art. 138 LA). Moreover, in settling an industrial dispute, the Commission shall have the same enforcing powers as the High Court and enjoy the same priviledges and immunities in regard to its proceedings (art. 139 LA).

Arbitraje: Si

Remarks

Mediation: art. 154 LA.
Arbitration: art. 157 LA.

% de controversias relativas al despido en relación al número total de controversias: 51.7

Remarks

Figure for the year 2008.
This figure includes:
- Summary dismissals (21.2%)
- Unfair terminations (23.9%)
- Redundancy/lay-Off/ Severance pay (6.6%)

Source: Annual Report of the National Labour Commission for the year 2008