CDD regulados: Si

Remarks

Art. 15-17 LL.

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

The LC does not require any valid reason for the use of FTC.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

Art. 16 LL: Fixed-term contracts can be renewed as many times as agreed upon by the parties.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No statutory limitation on the maximum duration of successive FTCs.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Art. 20 LL: Probation employment or its renewal must be concluded in writing and can only cover a maximum period of six (6) months.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Art 30 LL: the written notification of the dismissal must specify the reasons for the dismissal.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa

Remarks

Art. 30 LL provides that an open-ended contract can always be terminated at the will of either party provided that there are legitimate motives for terminating the contract.
See also art. 1(12) which defines unfair dismissal as "termination of employment contract by the employer without justifiable reason or observance of procedures established by law".

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, responsabilidades familiares, color, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, origen étnico

Remarks

The LL does not contain a list of prohibited grounds for dismissal.
However, it contains a general prohibition of discrimination in work matter.
Art. 12 LL prohibits direct or indirect discrimination aiming at denying workers the right to equal opportunity or equal treatment especially when the discrimination is
based upon the following:
1. Race, color, or origin;
2. sex, marital status or family responsibilities;
3. religion, beliefs or political opinions;
4. social or economic conditions;
5. country of origin;
6. disability;
7. previous, current or future pregnancy;
8. any other type of discrimination.

- Art. 114 LL prohibits an employer from relying on trade union membership or activities to take favourable or unfair decisions concerning a worker with regard to benefits and working conditions.

- Art. 67 LL prohibits the employer from giving notice of dismissal during maternity leave.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con una invalidez confirmada

Remarks

- Women on maternity leave:
Prohibition to dismiss a woman during maternity leave (art. 67 LL)

- Workers' representatives:
In case of an unlauful dismissal, workers' delegates and trade union representatives are entitled to higher compensation: a maximum of 9 months' pay (instead of 6 months' pay).

- Injured workers declared unfit to work:
Art. 100 LL: The employer shall notify the Labor Inspector prior to dismissing a worker dismissed due to an accident.

It is also worth noting that in case of termination of the employment contract during paid leave or suspension period by the employer, the notice allowance is doubled (art. 31 LL).
Reasons for the suspension of the employment contract are listed in art. 25 LL, as follows:
1. absence from work due to a disease confirmed by a recognized medical doctor;
2. worker's unavailability due to a work accident or a professional disease;
3. maternity leave of a woman;
4. a strike or lock-out which comply with the procedures regulating the labour collective dispute;
5. worker's absence authorised by the employer by virtue of collective conventions or individual agreements between employer and worker;
6. worker's lay-off;
7. pre-trial detention of a worker for a period not exceeding six (6) months;
8. training of the worker organized by a trade union to which he/she is entitled as per the modalities set by the law or collective conventions ;
9. suspension of the enterprise's activity due to technical reasons;
10. in case of force majeure or any other reason provided for by the law with the effect of preventing one of the parties from fulfilling its obligation.

In Rwanda, there is no prohibition of termination of employment during the suspension period (except for maternity leave, see art. 67 LL), the employer is only required to pay twice the amount of the notice allowance.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 30 LL: notice of termination must be given in writing to the interested party and must specify the reasons for the dismissal.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 27 LL: The notice period shall be at least:
- 15 days if the worker has worked for less than a year;
- 1 month if the worker has workers for a period of one year or more.

No notice period shall apply to a worker on probation.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 32 LL.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

No general obligation to notify the administration of any dismissal. This only applies in case of the dismissal of a worker for economic and technological reasons (art. 34 LL - see below under collective dismissals).

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): The LL does not define collective dismissal in terms of the number of employees concerned.
Specific notification requirements apply to any individual and collective dismissal on economic grounds or due to internal reorganization, restructuring following economic difficulties or technological transfers with the aim of protecting the competitiveness of the enterprise.

Remarks

Art. 34 LL.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

No preliminary consultation required in the LL (art. 34 LL).
Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LC: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 34 LL: Obligation to inform the competent labour inspector in writing.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

No statutory obligation to inform the worker's representatives in the LL (art. 34 LL).
Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LL: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Art. 34 LL: performance, professional qualification, time spent in the enterprise and family responsibilities shall be taken into account when selecting the workers to be dismissed.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Remarks

No statutory obligation to consider alternatives to dismissals in the LC (art. 34 LL).
Note: Such requirement was included in the former Labour Code (2001), repealed by the 2009 LL: any employer intending to dismiss workers on economic grounds was required, before implementing his/her decision, to inform the worker's representatives of the causes and criteria, and the date the proposed dismissals and to undertake consultations with them on measures that could be taken to prevent or limit the dismissals.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: Si

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

The LC provides for additional notification requirements which are not specific to collective dismissal: they apply to any economic dismissal concerning 1 or more employees.

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

According to art. 35 LL, upon dismissal, workers are entitled to severance pay ("dismissal compensation") provided that they have completed a period of at least twelve (12) consecutive months of work.
Statutory severance pay is payable at the following rates:
- 1 month' salary for less than 5 years of service;
- 2 months' salary for 5 to 10 years of service;
- 3 months' salary for 10 to 15 years of service;
- 4 months' salary for 15 to 20 years of service;
- 5 months' salary for 20 to 25 years of service; and
- 6 months' salary for more than 25 years of service.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

The LL does not provide for specific redundancy pay. Severance pay provided for in art. 35 LL also cover economic dismissals.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Art. 33 LL.

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): - Workers with up to 10 years of service:
Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 6 months' salary.

- Workers with over 10 years of service:
Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

- Trade union and staff representatives (regardless of seniority) :
Not less than 3 months' salary and up to a maximum of 9 months' salary.

Remarks

Art. 33 LL.

Posibilidad de readmisión: No

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

Art. 140 LL:
When an individual labour dispute arises, the concerned party shall request the workers' delegates (staff representative) to settle it amicably.
- In case the dispute is not settled, it shall be referred to the Labour Inspector for an out-of-court settlement.
- When conciliation efforts fail, the dispute may be taken before the competent court.
- If the above mentioned steps have not been followed, the court may declare the claim inadmissible.

Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

Arbitraje: Si

Remarks

Only for collective labour disputes (arts. 144-150 LL)