CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

No reasons specified in the LC.
However, according to art. 28 (3) LC, fixed-term contracts used to fill in on a lasting basis positions connected with the normal and permanent activity of an undertaking shall be deemed concluded for an unspecified period of time.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 12 meses

Remarks

Art. 26 (1) EA: a probationary period may be included in a contract of employment in respect of a skilled worker provided it does not exceed 12 months.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

No explicit mention of an obligation to state the reasons for dismissal.
However see the following provisions:
* Art. 31 (1) (f) EA on the certificate of termination : The reasons for termination must be indicated in the certificate, if so requested by the employee;
* Art 57 (2) EA: The employment cannot be terminated for reasons connected with the conduct or the capacity of the employee before the employee is given the opportunity to defend himself against the allegations made.

* Art. 61 (1) EA: In any claim or complaint, the employer shall provide the reason for dismissal. If he or she fails to do so there shall be a presumption that the dismissal was unfair.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, razones económicas, capacidad del trabajador

Remarks

Art. 57 (1) EA: "valid reason for termination connected with the capacity or conduct of the employee or based on the operational requirements of the undertaking".

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, responsabilidades familiares, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, lengua, participación en una huelga legal, propriedad, nacimiento, origen étnico

Remarks

Art. 57 (3) EA: lists invalid reasons for dismissals as
(a) an employee’s race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationality, ethnic or social origin, disability, property, birth, marital or other status or family responsibilities;
(b) an employee’s exercise of freedom of association rights;
(c) temporary absence from work because of sickness or injury;
(d) exercise or proposed exercise of the right to remove himself from a work situation which he reasonably believes presents an imminent or serious danger to life or health;
(e) participation or proposed participation in Iawful industrial action;
(f) refusal to do any work normally done an employee who is engaged in industrial action; or
(g) the filling of a complaint or participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violations of laws, regulations or collective agreements.

See also the general provision of non-discrimination (including in respect of termination of employment): art. 5 (1) EA.
On pregnancy, see: art 49(1) EA: an employer who terminates the employment of an employee because of her pregnancy or for any reason connected with her pregnancy shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine and 5 years imprisonment.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero):

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 29(1) EA

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 29 (1) EA: Notice period for terminating a contract for an unspecified period of time varies between 1 day and one month depending on the frequency of pay and/or the length of service, as follows:
1) workers paid on a monthly basis: 1 month's notice;
2) workers paid on a fortnightly basis:
- 1 fortnight's notice for less than 5 years of service
- 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service;
3) workers paid on a weekly basis:
- 1 week's notice for less than 2 years of service
- 1 fortnight's notice between 2 and less than 5 years of service
- 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service;
4) workers paid on a hourly basis:
- 1 day's notice for less than 6 months of service
- 1 week notice between 6 months and less than 2 years of service
- 1 fortnight's notice between 2 and less than 5 years of service
- 1 month's notice for at least 5 years of service.

Art. 29 (3) EA: The minimum period of notice in respect of a contract of employment for a specified period of time shall be 14 days.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas: 0.5 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados por hora o día: 0.25 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas: 0.5 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados por hora o día: 0.25 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas, cada semana o por hora: 0.5 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas, cada semana o por hora: 0.5 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas, cada semana o por hora: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas, cada semana o por hora: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores pagados cada dos semanas, cada semana o por hora: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores a tiempo definido: 0.47 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 30 (2) EA

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No legal definition.
No specific procedure attached to dismissal based on "operational requirements" in the LC. However specific requirements have been established by case-law.

Remarks

Art. 57 (1) EA : "operational requirements of the undertaking" can constitute a valid reason for dismissing an employee.
However, there is no mention in the Labour Code to when such dismissal could be described as collective. In addition, there are no specific statutory requirements such as consultation with trade union or notification to the labour administration for dismissals concerning more than one employees.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

No statutory requirements.
However, the Courts have ruled that in cases of redundancies and other mass dismissals for operational needs, the employer must comply with art. 13 and 14 of the ILO Convention 158 on consultation with the worker's representatives and notification to the administration.
(See Makande and another V Malawi Telecommunications Ltd [IRC 81/2001] Industrial Relations Court , upheld by the High Court [Civil Appeal 70/2003] and confirmed by the Supreme Court on 7 May 2007 in Malawi Telecommunication Ltd v Makande and another, [Civil Appeal 2/2006], reported in Malawi Labour Law Report, 2008, pp. 35-45.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

No statutory requirements.
However, the Courts have ruled that in cases of redundancies and other mass dismissals for operational needs, the employer must comply with art. 13 and 14 of the in ILO Convention 158 on consultation with the worker's representatives and notification to the administration.
(See Makande and another V Malawi Telecommunications Ltd [IRC 81/2001] Industrial Relations Court , upheld by the High Court [Civil Appeal 70/2003] and confirmed by the Supreme Court on 7 May 2007 in Malawi Telecommunication Ltd v Makande and another, [Civil Appeal 2/2006], reported in Malawi Labour Law Report, 2008, pp. 35-45.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

No statutory requirements.
However, the Courts have ruled that in cases of redundancies and other mass dismissals for operational needs, the employer must comply with art. 13 and 14 of the in ILO Convention 158 on consultation with the worker's representatives and notification to the administration.
(See Makande and another V Malawi Telecommunications Ltd [IRC 81/2001] Industrial Relations Court , upheld by the High Court [Civil Appeal 70/2003] and confirmed by the Supreme Court on 7 May 2007 in Malawi Telecommunication Ltd v Makande and another, [Civil Appeal 2/2006], reported in Malawi Labour Law Report, 2008, pp. 35-45.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

New in 2011
The Employment Amendment Act of 2010 (effective as of May 2011) limits severance pay entitlements to economic dismissals ("termination of a contract as result of redundancy or retrenchment, or due to economic difficulties, or technical, structural or operational requirements of the employer) or unfair dismissals. Employees who are fairly dismissed (ie for a reason connected with their capacity) are no longer entitled to severance pay.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

New in 2011
The Employment Amendment Act of 2010 (effective as of May 2011) limited severance pay entitlements to economic dismissals ("termination of a contract as result of redundancy or retrenchment, or due to economic difficulties, or technical, structural or operational requirements of the employer) or unfair dismissals.

The amounts of redundancy pay have also been changed by the Employment Amendment Act 2010.
The First Schedule of the EA, as amended reads as follows:
* At least 1 year and up 5 years of service: 2 weeks' wages for each completed year of service up to and including the fifth year.
* More than 5 years and up to 10 years of service: 2 weeks' wages for each completed year of service for the first five years plus 3 weeks' wages for each completed year of service from the sixth year and up to and including the tenth year.
* More than 10 years: 2 weeks' wages for each completed year of service for the first five years plus 3 weeks' wages for each completed year of service from the sixth year and up to and including the tenth year plus four weeks' wages for each completed year of service from the eleventh year onwards.

[Prior to July 2011, severance/redundancy pay was set as follows:
* From 1 and up to 10 years of service: 2 week's wages for each completed year of service
* Beyond 10 years of service: 4 weeks' wages for each completed year of service.]

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 6.25 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 16.25 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Art. 63(4) and (5) EA. The amount of compensation shall be such amount as the court considers just and equitable in the circumstances. However, statutory minimum thresholds are foreseen in art. 63 (5) of the EA.

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Compensation for unfair dismissal shall not be less than:
- 1 week's pay for each year of service for a worker who has served for not more than 5 years;
- 2 weeks' pay for each year of service for a worker who has served for more than 5 and less than 10 years;
- 3 weeks' pay for each year of service for a worker who has served for more than 10 years and not more than 15 years;
- 1 month's pay for each year of service for a worker who has served for more than 15 years.

Remarks

Art. 63 (5) EA.
The Act foresees an additional amount to be awarded by the Court when dismissal was based on prohibited grounds.

Note that according to art. 63 (6) EA, if an order of reinstatement or re-engagement made by the Court is not complied with by the employer, the employee is entitled to an award equivalent to 12 weeks' wages, in addition to a compensatory award.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 63 (1) a) EA.
When deciding which remedy to award, the Court shall first consider the possibility of ordering reinstatement (art. 63 (2) EA).

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

Prior to the settlement of the dispute before the Court, the matter is lodged to a Regional/District Labour Officer before a Labour Officer for conciliation: art. 62, 64 EA and art. 44(1) LRA. This preliminary phase of extra-judicial conciliation is compulsory for the parties.

In addition, preliminary conciliation before the Registrar of the Industrial Relations Court: Rule 5 (3),(4) (5) of the Industrial Relations Court (Procedure) Rules, 1999.
Conciliation is carried out by the Registrar, if requested by the parties or if directed by the Court to do so.

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 62(1), 64 and 65 EA.
See also the part on dispute settlement (art. 42-45) of the Labour Relations Act, 1996

Arbitraje: No

% de controversias relativas al despido en relación al número total de controversias: 65

Remarks

Figure calculated on the basis of the statistics provided in the Annual Report of the Industrial Relations Court of Malawi for the period between July 2007 and June 2008.
The figures represents the percentage of disputes pertaining to unfair dismissals out of the total number of disputes disputes registered by the "Principal registry" and the "Lilongwe Registry".