CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Art. 37 LL: labour relations shall be entered into for a period that is set in advance in the following cases: seasonal jobs, project-based work, increase volume of work that will last for a definite term, etc.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

Art. 37 LL: no maximum number of successive FTC, but maximum duration of labour relations for a definite term of 24 months.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 24mois

Remarks

Art. 37 LL. The interruption between two FTCs should be longer than 30 days

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 6 mois

Remarks

Art. 36 LL.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Articles 180 and 180a of Labour Code:

Article 180
(1) The employer is bound to, prior to cancellation of an employment contract in the case under Article 179, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Act, warn the employee in writing of the existence of cause for cancelling the employment contract and to leave the worker a time period of not less than eight days from the day of serving of the warning to take a stand on the allegations stated in the warning.
(2)The employer is due to state in the warning, referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, the grounds for dismissal, the facts and evidence which suggest that the conditions for dismissal were met, and the time period for giving a response to the warning.
(3)The warning is served on the employee in the manner prescribed for serving of the decree on cancelling the employment contract referred to in paragraph 185 of this Act.

Article 180a
Employer may terminate the employment contract of the employee referred to in Article 179, paragraph 1, item 1) of this Act, or impose some of the measures under Article 179a, if the worker has previously given written notice regarding the deficiencies in the work performed, guidance and appropriate deadline to enhance work performance, and the employee does not enhance the work performance within the given deadline

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur, capacité du travailleur, motifs économiques

Remarks

Article 179 of Labour Code:

(1) An employer may cancel the employee’s employment contract for just cause which relates to employee’s work ability and his conduct, such as:
i) If the worker does not achieve the work results or does not have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform his duties;
ii) If the worker has been sentenced by a final judgment for a crime in the workplace or related to workplace;
ii) If the worker does not return to work for the employer within 15 days of the expiry of the time period of stay of employment under Article 79 of this Act, i.e. unpaid absence under Article 100 of this Act.

(2) The employer may cancel the employment contract of the employee who commits a breach of a work duty, as follows:
i) If the worker is negligent or reckless in performing the work duty;
ii) If the worker abuses his position or exceeds authority;
iii) If the worker unreasonably and irresponsibly uses means of work;
iv) If the worker does not use or uses inappropriately the allocated resources and equipment for personal protection at work;
v) If the worker commits other breach of work duty as determined by a bylaw or employment contract.

(3) The employer may cancel the employment contract of an employee who does not respect the work discipline, as follows: i) If the worker without just cause refuses to perform work duties and execute the orders of the employer in accordance with the law; (ii) If the worker does not submit a certificate of temporary impairment for work in terms of Article 103 of this Act; iii) If the worker abuses the right to a leave of absence due to temporary impairment for work; iv) If the worker comes to work under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances, i.e. uses alcohol or other intoxicating substances during working hours, which has or may have an impact on the work performance; v) If the worker gave incorrect information that were critical for entering into employment relationship; vi) If the worker who works in jobs with higher risk, for which specific health fitness is a special requirement for work, refuses to undergo a health condition test; vii) If the worker does not respect work discipline prescribed by employer’s writ, or if a conduct is such that the worker cannot continue to work for the employer.

(5) Employee’s employment relationship may be terminated if there is a valid reason relating to the employer's needs, as follows: i) If as a result of technological, economic or organizational changes, the need to perform a specific job ceases, or there is a decrease in workload; ii) If the worker refuses to conclude the annex of the contract in terms of Article 171, paragraph 1, items 15) of this Act.

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, congé de matérnité, responsabilités familiales, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, couleur, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, opinion politique, origine sociale, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, statut financier, accomplissement du service militaire ou civil, langue, congé parental, état de santé

Remarks

Article 18 of Labour Law provides general grounds for protection against discrimination:
Direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment, as well as the employees, for reasons of sex, birth, language, race, color of skin, age, pregnancy, health condition, i.e. disability, ethnic origin, religion, marital status, family obligations, sexual orientation, political or other belief, social background, financial status, membership in political organizations, trade unions, or any other personal characteristic - is prohibited

Art. 183 of Labour Law provides specific regulations for protection against termination of employment contract in relation to discrimination:
The following shall not be considered as a justified reason for cancelling the employment contract in terms of Article 179 of the present Act: 1) Temporary impairment for work due to illness, accident at work or occupational disease; 2) Use of maternity leave, leave of absence for child care and absence from work due to special child care; 3) Full-term serving or completion of military service; 4) Membership in a political organization, trade union, sex, language, nationality, social background, religion, political or other conviction, or some other personal feature of the employee; 5) Activity as a representative of employees, in conformity with the present Act; 6) Seeking help from a trade union or agencies in charge of protection of employment-related rights, in conformity with the law, bylaw and employment contract.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales

Remarks

i) Workers' representatives: article 188 Labour Law: no dismissal during the term of office.
ii) No dismissal during pregnancy, maternity leave, absence for childcare or special care of the child, according to article 187 of Labour Law.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Art. 185 LL.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Art. 189 LL foresees a notice period only for those employees dismissed for lack of performance, i.e. qualifications and skills.
Notice period is minimum 1 month and maximum 3 months depending on the "duration of the insurance period" (period for which the employee has paid contributions for the retirement insurance), as follows:
- 1 month for up to 10 years of insurance period;
- 2 months for 10-20 years of insurance period;
- 3 months over 20 years of insurance period.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 2 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 3 mois.
  • Tous: 0 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Art. 189 LL
Only applicable for dismissal for lack of performance, i.e. qualifications and skills.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

Exception: Trade union must be notified in case of dismissal of trade union member: art. 181 LL.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): At least:
1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 99 staff employed for an indefinite term, over a period of 30 days;
2) 10% of employees, out of a total of 100 to 299 staff employed for an indefinite term, over a period of 30 days;
3) 30 employees out of at least 300 staff employed for an indefinite term, over a period of 30 days;
4) 20 employees notwithstanding of the number of employees, over a period of 90 days.

Remarks

Art. 153 LL.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Art. 154 and 156 LL.

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Art. 155 and 156 LL.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 156 LL.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Remarks

No criteria listed.
Art. 155 LL only refers to criteria as one of the elements to be communicated to the workers' representatives for consultation.

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks

Art. 155 and 156 LL.

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

Remarks

Art. 182 LL: preferential right to re-employment for 6 months.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

The provision on severance pay (art. 190) has been deleted from the 2005 Labour Law.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

Art. 158 LL established a minimum statutory payment to be paid prior to terminating an employment contract on the grounds that "due to technological, economic or organizational changes a particular job becomes redundant or volume of work be reduced".
The amount of redundancy payment is to be set out in the contract but shall not be less than the sum of 1/3 of the monthly salary for each full year of service for the first ten years and 1/4 of the salary for each full year of service after 10 years of employment.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0.7 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1.7 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 3.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 5.8 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

1) Dismissal based on the worker's conduct or capacity: no statutory severance pay.
(The provision on severance pay for capacity-based dismissal (art. 190) has been deleted from the 2005 Labour Law.)
2) Economic dismissal (individual and collective): redundancy payment.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Remarks

Art. 191 LL.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): Damages in lieu of reinstatement:
- max. 18 months' salary when the employee does not wish to be reinstated or
- max. 36 months upon request or the employer or when case the existing circumstances suggest that the continuation of labor relations is not possible.

Remarks

Art. 191, ParagraphParagraph 4-5 LL.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

Art. 191 ParagraphParagraph 1-2 LL.
Note that, when reinstatement is ordered, the employer shall also pay compensation for the lost salary and other emoluments which the employee is legally entitled to.

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

Remarks

Art. 21 of the Law on Organization of Courts (2002): the municipal court has jurisdiction to hear termination of employment disputes at first instance.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui

Remarks

Termination of employment disputes can be settled through arbitration: Art. 194 LL and art. 30 Act on Peaceful settlement of Labour Disputes.

Durée de la procédure: 6mois (statutory)

Remarks

Art. 195 LL.
* The legal proceedings may be initiated 30 days after the decision has been served to the employee.
* The dispute before the court shall be terminated 6 months after initiation of the proceedings at the latest.
* In case of amicable settlement through arbitration, the decision shall be passed within 10 days :art. 194 LL.