CDD reglementés: Oui

Remarks

Art. 8 LC

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Art. 8 (4) LC.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2

Remarks

Art. 8 (5) LC: Any FTC concluded for at least 6 months will automatically transform into a contract of indefinite duration after 2 renewals.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 2annu00e9e(s)

Remarks

Art. 8 (3) LC.

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 12 mois

Remarks

Art. 36 LC: Maximum 6 months renewable once.
See also, the Decree No 2007-008, Arts. 3, 4 and 5:
The duration of the probationary period varies according to the workers' category (5 categories in total) as follows:
- 3 months for skilled and unskilled blue-collar workers and white-collar workers who do not have managerial responsibilities (cat. 1,2, 3);
- 4 months for engineers, employees with supervisory or managerial functions (cat. 4); and
- 6 months for high-ranking executives (cat. 5).
The probationary period can be renewed once.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Art. 21 LC.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime

Remarks

Art. 20 LC: Termination of employment is unfair if it is not justified by a legitimate reason, or a genuine and proper cause. ("La rupture est abusive lorsqu'elle est effectuée sans motif légitime, sans cause réelle et sérieuse".)

Motifs prohibés: grossesse, congé de matérnité, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, race, sexe, religion, opinion politique, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, statut VIH, origine ethnique

Remarks

- Worker's opinion and trade union membership or activities: see Art. 20 LC and Art. 141 LC.
- Pregnancy and maternity leave: see Arts. 95 and 97 LC.
- HIV status: Act No. 2005-040 of 20 February 2006 concerning the fight against HIV/AIDS and the protection of the rights of persons living with HIV/AIDS. Art. 46 provides that the serostatus of a worker, her or his partner or close family members shall not constitute a direct or indirect cause for non-recruitment or termination of employment. See also Art.78 of Decree N°2006-902 of 19 December 2006 implementing Act. No. 2005-40 which prohibits any exclusion, which can take the form of a dismissal, based only on the actual or perceived HIV positive serostatus.
[The same provision has been introduced in the new Decree No. 2011-626 of 11 October 2011 relating to the fight against HIV / AIDS in the workplace which entered into force in December 2011 - see art. 3.]
- Disability: see Art. 105 LC which contains a general prohibition of discrimination in employment on the basis of disability.
- Art. 5 LC protects employees against retaliation (including dismissal) if they report sexual harassment or testify against the employer in sexual harassment cases.
- In addition Art. 261 LC provides that any discriminatory treatment based on race, religion, origin, sex, trade union affiliation as well as political opinion or membership in relation to access to employment and vocational training, conditions of employment and promotion, conditions of remuneration and dismissal, shall be punished with a fine or imprisonment.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité

Remarks

- Any dismissal of a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council is subject to the authorization of the Labour Inspector (see Arts. 152, 156 and 165 LC).
- As a general rule, pregnant women cannot be dismissed during pregnancy. However dismissal is possible if the pregnant employee commits malpractice which is not connected to her pregnancy: Art. 95 LC.
- Dismissal is prohibited during maternity leave: Art. 97 LC.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Art. 21 LC and Art. 4 of Decree No 2007-009 of 9 January 2007 establishing the conditions and the duration of the notice period to be observed when terminating an employment contract of indefinite duration.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

The notice period is regulated by Decree 2007-009.
The statutory minimum notice period is set according to the length of service and varies according to the workers' category. For the purpose of calculating the notice period, workers are divided into 5 groups (see Art. 2 Decree 2007-009).

- Group I covers mainly unskilled blue collar workers, workers performing work which requires limited skills or professional experience, and employees performing tasks which only require limited training.
- Group II includes skilled blue-collar workers and employees with skills and experience but whose work does not involve any specific responsibility.
- Group III includes highly skilled blue-collar workers with limited responsibility, qualified employees with extensive professional training whose work involves taking initiative and exercising specific responsibilities, and junior executives.
- Group IV includes engineers and highly qualified technicians and employees exercising supervisory, coordination or managerial functions.
- Group V covers those workers who do not fall within the previous category, which mainly includes top executives.

The notice periods are set as follows:
* Length of service < 8 days:
Group I: 1 day; Group II: 2 days; Group III: 3 days; Group IV: 4 days; Group V: 5 days.
* Length of service < 3 months:
Group I: 3 days; Group II: 8 days; Group III: 15 days; Group IV: 1 month; Group V: 1 month.
* Length of service < 1 year:
Group I: 8 days; Group II: 15 days; Group III: 1 month; Group IV: 1.5 months; Group V: 3 months.
* Length of service > 1 year:
Group I: 10 days; Group II: 1 month; Group III: 1.5 months; Group IV: 2.5 months; Group V: 4 months.
* Length of service > 3 years: additional 2 days per year of service
* Length of service > 5 years:
Group I: 1 month; Group II: 1.5 months; Group III: 2 months; Group IV: 3 months: Group V: 6 months.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 8 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 15 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 3 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 8 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 15 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 3 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 10 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 75 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 4 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 18 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 38 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 53 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 83 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 128 jour(s).

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 2 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 3 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 6 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 2 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 3 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 6 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Travailleurs du groupe I: 1 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe II: 45 jour(s).
  • Travailleurs du groupe III: 2 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe IV: 3 mois.
  • Travailleurs du groupe V: 6 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Art. 18 LC and Art. 9 Decree No 2007-009 of 9 January 2007 establishing the conditions and the duration of the notice period to be observed when terminating an employment contract of indefinite duration.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Remarks

However, when an employer intends to dismiss a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council, he or she shall obtain the authorization to do so from the Labour Inspector (see Arts. 152, 156 and 165 LC).

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Remarks

However, when an employer intends to dismiss a workers' representative, a trade union officer or a member of the works council, he or she shall obtain the authorization to do so from the Labour Inspector (see Arts. 152, 156 and 165 LC).

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): There is no statutory definition of collective dismissal.

Remarks

Art. 24 LC regulates dismissals for economic reasons, which may be "collective or individual".
However, the consultation and notification requirements applicable to collective dismissals for economic reasons do not apply to individual economic dismissals (see Art. 27 LC).

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Art. 25 LC: prior consultation with the Works council (which is compulsory in undertakings with at least 50 permanent employees) and/or with the worker's representatives.

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Art. 25 LC: mandatory notification to the Labour Inspector.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 25 LC.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Remarks

No approval required. The Labour Inspector only issues a recommendation on the dismissal within 15 days of the date of notification (Art. 25 LC).
However, if the parties do not find an agreement on the list of employees to be dismissed, the Labour Inspector will issue a decision in that respect in accordance with the selection criteria listed in Art. 26 LC.

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

Remarks

Art. 25 LC: the list of redundant employees shall be established by the employer in consultation with the worker's representatives. The priority rules to be observed in selecting the employees must be in accordance with the agreed social plan, if any. In the absence of such agreed dismissal order, it shall take into account:
- the length of service in the undertaking;
- professional values, technical skills and professionalism;
- family responsibilities.

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Remarks

No preferential right to re-employment in the LC.
Priority for re-employment is only listed in Art. 25 as one of the elements to be considered in the framework of the consultation process.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

No general right to severance pay arising from dismissal based on reasons other than economic ones (see redundancy payment).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

Art. 28 LC: Any worker dismissed for economic reasons shall be entitled to redundancy payment which shall amount to 10 days' wages for each year of completed service up to a maximum of 6 months' wages in total.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 10 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 20 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 80 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 100 jour(s)

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 6 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 6 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

1) Non-economic dismissal: no severance pay
2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

Remarks

Art. 20 LC.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

Remarks

The only remedy available for unfair dismissal ("licenciement abusif") is the payment of damages.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

Remarks

- Art. 207 LC: The dual mission of the labour jurisdiction is to settle the dispute by conciliation or adjudicate if conciliation fails.
No further information in the LC as to the conciliation process before the labour tribunal.
- In addition, preliminary extra judicial conciliation is available before the Labour Inspector if requested by either party. Such preliminary settlement is not mandatory if the employment relationship has been terminated (see art. 199 and 200 LC).

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

Remarks

Art. 205 LC.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non