CDD reglementés: Oui

Remarks

Article 30 of the Labour Code (as of 2017)

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Article 29 of the Labour Code

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2

Remarks

Update as of 2017: Article 30 1(2) LC states that the number of defined 1-year contracts can no exceed two years. That means technically that the maximum number of successive FTCs is two.

However, Article 30 LC further elaborates on exceptions to Article 30 1.(2) :
Article 30 1. (3) Contracts for the execution of a particular work;
Article 30 1. (4) Replacement for the temporarily absent employee;
Article 30 1. (5) For seasonal work;
Article 30 1. (6) Migrant workers;
Article 30 2. Small business owners can hire workers on definite contracts with no time limitations;
Article 30 5. Contracts of workers in retirement age can can be extended for one year indefinitely.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

Update as of 2017: Article 30 1(2) LC states that the number of defined 1-year contracts can no exceed two years. That means technically that the maximum number of successive FTCs is two.

However, Article 30 LC further elaborates on exceptions to Article 30 1.(2) :
Article 30 1. (3) Contracts for the execution of a particular work;
Article 30 1. (4) Replacement for the temporarily absent employee;
Article 30 1. (5) For seasonal work;
Article 30 1. (6) Migrant workers;
Article 30 2. Small business owners can hire workers on definite contracts with no time limitations;
Article 30 5. Contracts of workers in retirement age can can be extended for one year indefinitely.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 24mois

Remarks

See comments above under maximum number of successive FTCs.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

See comments above under maximum number of successive FTCs.

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 3 mois

Remarks

Article 36 of the Labour Code

For workers in executive positions and their deputies, accountants and their deputies, heads of branches and representative of the organizations – the probation may extent to six month period.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur, capacité du travailleur, motifs économiques

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that:
An employment contract with an employee on the initiative of the employer may be terminated in the following cases:
1) liquidation of a legal entity employer or termination of the activities of an individual employer;
2) reduction in staff numbers or positions;
3) decrease in the volume of production, work performed and services provided, which led to worsening of the economic state of the employer;
4) unfitness of the employee for the position held or work performed as a consequence of inadequate qualifications; 5) unfitness of the employee for the position held or work performed as a consequence of health reasons hampering continued performance of the given work;
6) repeated failure to verify the knowledge on safety and health or industrial safety issues by the employee responsible for ensuring the safety and health of the work of the organization carrying out production actvitiesi
7) a negative result of work performed during a probationary period;
8) absence of the employee from work without good reason for a period of three or more hours in a row during a single working day (work shift);
9) presence of the employee at work under the influence of alcohol, narcotics or toxic substances (or their analogues), including in cases of consumption during the working day of intoxicating substances (or their analogues);
10) refusal to undergo a medical examination to establish the fact of using substances causing a state of alcohol, narcotic, toxicomaniac intoxication, confirmed by the relevant act
10) violation by the employee of the rules for labour safety or fire safety or traffic safety entailing or capable of entailing serious consequences, including injuries and accidents;
11) theft (including minor theft) by the employee in the work place of other people’s property, its deliberate destruction or damage, as established by a sentence or court ruling that has come into legal effect;
12) culpable actions or inaction on the part of an employee dealing with money or goods if these actions or inaction provide grounds for the employer to loose his trust in him;
13) an immoral act carried out by an employee fulfilling educational functions that is incompatible with continued performance of the given work;
14) divulgence by the employee of information constituting state secrets or other secrets protected by law that he acquired in connection with performance of his job duties;
15) repeat failure by the employee to fulfil or duly fulfil his job duties, without good reason, provided a disciplinary sanction has been imposed thereon;
16) termination of the employee’s access to state secrets in cases established by the laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
17) knowing provision by the employee to the employer of false documents or information on conclusion of the employment contract, if the genuine documents or information might constitute grounds for refusal to conclude the employment contract;
18) violation by the head of the employer’s executive body, his deputy or heads of subdivisions of the employer of their job duties resulting in material damage to the employer;
19) absence of the employee from work for over two months in a row as a consequence of temporary disability, with the exception of cases when the employee is on maternity leave or if the relevant disease is included on the list of illnesses for which a longer term of disability is established, approved by the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
For an employee disabled in connection with an industrial accident or occupational disease, his job (position) is retained until his working capacity is restored or disability established;
20) a corruption-related crime committed by the employee and excluding, in accordance with a judicial act, the possibility of his continued work.
21) continuation of the employee's participation in the strike after bringing to their attention the court's decision to recognize the strike as illegal or to suspend the strike;
22) the employee's achievement of the retirement age established by clause 1 of Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On Pensions in the Republic of Kazakhstan", with the right of annual extension of the term of the employment contract by mutual agreement of the parties;
23) employees absence from work for more than one month, for reasons unknown to the employer.

Motifs prohibés: grossesse, congé de matérnité, responsabilités familiales, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, sexe, religion, opinion politique, origine sociale, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, langue, propriété, identité de genre, lieu de résidence

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code on the grounds for termination of employment
Art. 54 of the Labour Code prohibits the termination in the cases of temporary incapacity for work, pregnancy, women with children under the age of three, single mothers with a child under the age of fourteen or a disabled child up to the age of eighteen, other persons raising this category of children without a mother
Art. 6 of the Labour Code on prohibition of discrimination
Art. 175 of the Labour Code on the right to strike

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales, travailleurs handicapés

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code on the grounds for termination of employment
Art. 54 of the Labour Code prohibits the termination in the cases of temporary incapacity for work, pregnancy, women with children under the age of three, single mothers with a child under the age of fourteen or a disabled child up to the age of eighteen, other persons raising this category of children without a mother-
Art. 6 of the Labour Code on prohibition of discrimination
Art. 175 of the Labour Code on the right to strike

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Article 53 LC. Procedure for termination of the employment contract by the employer

1. When an employer terminates an employment contract for the reasons provided for in article 52, paragraph 1 (1) and (2), of this Code, the employer must notify the employee in writing of the termination of the contract at least one month in advance, unless a longer notice period is stipulated in the employment contract or collective agreement. With the employee's written consent, the employment contract may be terminated before the expiry of the notice period. (...)
2. In the event of termination of an employment contract on the grounds stipulated in article 52, paragraph 1 (3), of this Code, the employer must notify the employees in writing of the termination of the employment contract 15 working days in advance, unless a longer notice period is stipulated in the employment or collective agreements. (...)

However, each of the grounds for contract termination outlined in Article 52 LC has its own procedure outlined in Article 53. One month notice is not applicable to all of the grounds. Notice period varies from 10 calendar days to 15 working days to 1 month. Some instances do not indicate on notice period (e.g. medical conditions, grounds for alcoholics).

On the basis that Article 53 LC provides for two different length of notice (either 15 days or 1 month) depending on the type of economic dismissal, an average between the two is taken in the table hereunder, i.e. 21 days.

Note: Before the LC change in 2017, Article 56 LC was not distinguishing between economic and non- economic dismissals, and the rules was one month notice for all types of dismissals. With the 2017 reform, Article 53 LC now provides for two different length of notice (either 15 days or 1 month) depending on the type of economic dismissal (i.e. both Art. 52 (1) (2) or (3) refer to economic dismissals).
By interpreting Article 53(3-10) LC, notice period is not considered for workers who are dismissed based on the grounds outlined in Article 52(4-25). There is no notice period but a procedure in place for non-economic dismissals which essentially delegates the examination of the case to third parties (e.g. attestation commission, medical group, courts).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 1 an:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 0.7 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Non

Remarks

Art. 53 of the Labour Code states that with the written consent of the worker the termination can be made effective before the expiration of the notice period.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

Update as of 2016: Article 18 (2) of the Trade Union Law provides that the trade union can submit an opinion regarding the termination of the contract of its members.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): There is no definition of the collective dismissal in the Labour Code

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Article 9(2) of the Law on Employment: the employer has to notify, one month in advance, the public service of employment about any contemplated redundancies.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

Article 131 of the Labour Code

The severance pay is the average monthly wage. Article 131.3 notes the possibility of a higher severance pay provided in collective agreement.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

Article 131 of the Labour Code

Article 131.1 LC states that in case of liquidation, reduction of staff – pay is the average wage for one month.

However, Article 131.2 LC states that in case of decrease in the volume of production, performed work and services provided by the enterprise, the pay is the average wage for two months.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1 mois

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Remarks

Art. 177 of the Labour Code states that compensation is an alternative measure to dismissal only when an employee demands so. The compensation amounts to the payback of wages between the date of dismissal and the date of reinstatement, but not more than six monthly wages. In case of reinstatement, the employee is still entitled to this payback.

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?: Oui

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

Art. 177 of the Labour Code

Reinstatement is a primary measure for unlawful dismissals. It can be replaced by a compensation, up to 6 months of monthly earnings, on the demand of the employee.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

Remarks

Art. 159 of the Labour Code states that the individual labour disputes are considered by the conciliation commissions and/or courts.

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

Remarks

Art. 159 of the Labour Code