CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Sec. 3, chap. 1 ECA: "justified reason".

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

Although there are no statutory limitations on the number of successive contracts, the ECA states that "consecutive fixed-term contracts concluded without any justified reason shall be considered valid indefinitely" (sec. 3(2), chap. 1 ECA).
New since 1 January 2011:
Source of information: European labour Law Network, FINLAND - Amendment on consecutive fixed term contracts, 01-01-2011 (link provided under "Scope of additional information").
Sec 3, chap.1 ECA has been amended by Act No 1224/2010 which came into force on 01/01/2011. A new paragraph (3) regarding successive FTcs has been added to sec. 3, which reads as follows:
"The use of consecutive employment contracts is not permissible when the number of fixed-term contracts or their duration as a sum or their sum show that the employer's need for a work force is long-term." (sec. 3(3), chap. 1, ECA)
"The report of the Employment and Equality Committee of the Parliament indicates that the amendment was a reaction to a judgement of the Finnish Supreme Court (Korkein oikeus 2010:11; votes 3-2). Repeated consecutive employment contracts concluded for one year and prolonged per agreement were considered to have a justified reason. The main argument was that a municipality V outsourced kindergarten services to the employer on a contractual annual basis. The employer only provided services to V and the employer's activity was considered to be fully dependent on the decisions made by V. The minority argued that the economic risk was unduly transferred to the employee."

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

No statutory limitation on the maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCS. However the ECA states that "consecutive fixed-term contracts concluded without any justified reason shall be considered valid indefinitely" (sec. 3(2), chap. 1, ECA).
New since 1 January 2011:
Source of information: European labour Law Network, FINLAND - Amendment on consecutive fixed term contracts, 01-01-2011 (link provided under "Scope of additional information").
Sec 3, chap.1 ECA has been amended by Act No 1224/2010 which came into force on 01/01/2011. A new paragraph (3) regarding successive FTcs has been added to sec. 3, which reads as follows:
"The use of consecutive employment contracts is not permissible when the number of fixed-term contracts or their duration as a sum or their sum show that the employer's need for a work force is long-term." (sec. 3(3), chap. 1, ECA)
"The report of the Employment and Equality Committee of the Parliament indicates that the amendment was a reaction to a judgement of the Finnish Supreme Court (Korkein oikeus 2010:11; votes 3-2). Repeated consecutive employment contracts concluded for one year and prolonged per agreement were considered to have a justified reason. The main argument was that a municipality V outsourced kindergarten services to the employer on a contractual annual basis. The employer only provided services to V and the employer's activity was considered to be fully dependent on the decisions made by V. The minority argued that the economic risk was unduly transferred to the employee."

% de travailleurs sous CDD: 15.6

Remarks

Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2011.
The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
"A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 4 mois

Remarks

Sec. 4, chap. 1 ECA.
(6 months if the employer provides specific, work-related training for the employee over at least 4 months)

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 2 & 3, chap. 9, ECA.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime

Remarks

See: sec.1-3, chap. 7, ECA.
As a general condition, termination of employment cannot take place without a "proper and weighty reason". Two types of reasons are listed in the ECA: these are reasons connected with the employee's person (conduct, and capacity) and economic reasons.

Motifs prohibés: grossesse, congé de matérnité, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, opinion politique, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, langue, congé parental, participation à une grève légale, état de santé, origine ethnique

Remarks

See:
* Sec. 2, chap. 2, ECA : Prohibition of discrimination.
* Sec. 2, chap. 7, ECA: Termination grounds related to the employee's person provides a list of invalid grounds.
* Sec. 9, chap. 7, ECA : Termination in the case of an employee who is pregnant or on family leave.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs avec des responsabilités familiales

Remarks

* Workers' representatives:
Sec. 10, chap. 7, ECA: Dismissal of a "shop steward or elected representatives" based on individual grounds requires the consent of the majority of the employees whom he represents.
Economic dismissal of those representatives are authorized provided the job they occupy ceases completely and the employer has been unable to find another suitable job or to train the person for some other work.

* Pregnant women and employees on family leave: sec. 9, chap. 7, ECA deems the dismissal to be based on employee's pregnancy or family leave and places the onus on the employer to prove that the dismissal is based on another reason.
In addition, sec. 9, chap. 7 ECA states that the employer can terminate the employment relationship with employee on maternity, special maternity, parental or child care on economic grounds only in case of complete cessation of activities.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks

Sec. 4, chap. 9, ECA: A notice on termination of an employment contract shall be delivered to the employer or its representative, or to the employee, in person. If this is not possible, the notice may be delivered by letter or electronically.
However, if so requested by the employee, the employer must notify the employee without delay in writing of the date of termination of the employment contract and of the grounds for termination or cancellation known by the employer to have caused the termination (sec. 5, chap.9 ECA).

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

According to sec. 3, chap. 6, ECA, the length of the notice period varies between 14 days and 6 months, according to the length of service of the employee, as follows:
* 14 days if the employee has up to 1 year of service;
* 1 months if the employee has more than 1 and no more than 4 years of service;
* 2 months if the employee has more than 4 and no more than 8 years of service;
* 4 months if the employee has between more than 8 years and no more than 12 years of service.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 0.47 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 0.47 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 2 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 4 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 6 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 4, chap. 6, ECA.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Remarks

However, in case of a dismissal of a worker on economic grounds and if that worker has an employment history of at least 3 years with the same employer or with a different employer, the employer is obliged to notify the employment office. This obligation also applies when the worker has been in fixed-term employment for at least 3 consecutive years or at least 36 months during the preceding 42 months (Sec. 3a, chap. 9, ECA).

See also sec. 48 of the ACU, applicable only to undertakings employing at least 20 workers: When the employer proposes measures that may lead to termination (on economic grounds), he or she should also inform the employment office.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

However, according to the Act on Co-operation within Undertakings (2007), notification to worker's representatives and negotiation are compulsory when the dismissal affects a single worker provided such dismissal is based on financial and productive grounds, and the undertakings employs at least 20 workers. (see sec. 44-53 ACU)

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): The ACU provides for a specific cooperation procedure applicable to dismissals on financial or productive grounds of one or several employees.
However, procedural requirements regarding information provided by the employer to the worker's representatives only apply to dismissal of over 10 workers over a period of 90 days.

Remarks

Sec. 44 ACU: scope of application of the cooperation procedures.
On the information requirements: see art. 47 ACU.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Sec. 45-51 ACU.
Note that section 47 differentiates information requirements based on the number of employees concerned by the dismissal (under or above 10 employees).
When the dismissal concerns less than 10 employees over a period of 90 days, information shall be directly given to the employees or their representatives if the employees so request.

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 48 ACU: applicable to the economic dismissal of one or more employees.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 45-51 ACU on negotiation.
Sec. 53 ACU on communication of the employer's report regarding the decisions adopted on the basis of the negotiation.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks

Sec. 49-50 ACU.

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 6, chap. 6, ECA: preferential rehiring within 9 months of the dismissal.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

No statutory severance pay.

Employers employing at least 30 workers must provide free vocational coaching or training courses to workers, which they have terminated based on economic reasons and which have worked for them for at least 5 years, sec. 13, chap. 7 ECA. This entitlement can be waived by collective agreement, sec 7(11), chap. 13 ECA.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

No statutory severance pay or redundancy payment.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Remarks

See: sec. 2, chap. 12 ECA.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): * Groundless termination of employment: min. 3 months' pay and max. 24 months' pay.

* Failure to observe the procedural requirements applicable to economic dismissal: max. 30 000 EUR.

Remarks

* Compensation for groundless termination of employment: sec. 2, chap. 12 ECA.
The minimum amount of 3 months is not applicable to dismissals based on financial and production-related grounds or a reorganization procedure.
For shop stewards and elected representatives, the maximum amount is 30 months' pay.

* Failure to observe the procedural requirements applicable to economic dismissal: sec. 62 ACU.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

Remarks

No statutory provision found.

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

Remarks

In Finland, individual labour disputes over rights are heard by ordinary courts as apposed to disputes connected with collective agreements which are dealt with by labour courts. (See Act on the Labour Court 646/19974)

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

Remarks

No statutory provision found.