CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Art. 40 and 42 LC.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2

Remarks

Art. 41 LC.
Except for seasonal work and other types of work to be determined by the Ministry of Labour.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 48mois

Remarks

Art. 41 LC.
Maximum duration of 1 FTC (2 years) renewable once.
Note: The maximum duration of a FTC is 1 year for workers with family responsibilities living away from their family.

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 6 mois

Remarks

Art. 43 LC: the probationary period cannot exceed 1 month for unskilled blue-collar workers and 6 months for the other categories of workers.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Art. 76 LC.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime

Remarks

Art. 62 LC: dismissal shall be based on fair reasons ("motifs valables") related to the worker's conduct, worker's capacity or operational requirements of the undertaking.

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, congé de matérnité, responsabilités familiales, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, race, couleur, sexe, religion, opinion politique, origine sociale, nationalité/origine nationale, affiliation et activités syndicales, statut VIH

Remarks

See art. 62 LC on invalid grounds for dismissal.
See also art. 1 LC: general provision on non-discrimination and art. 234 LC on trade union activities.
On HIV status, see Act no 08/011, 14 July 2008 on the protection of persons living with HIV/AIDS and affected persons (Loi n° 08/011 du 14 juillet 2008 portant protection des droits des personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA et des personnes affectées available at: http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/Droit%20Public/SANTE/L.08.011.14.07.2008.htm) : HIV/AIDS status cannot be a cause for terminating an employment contract (art. 21).

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité

Remarks

- Workers' representatives:
Mandatory approval by the Labour Inspector is required for any dismissal of a workers' representative ( full or alternate member): see art. 258 LC.
In addition, if such approval is granted, the notice period is twice the statutory notice period and cannot be less than 3 months.

- Pregnant women /women on maternity leave: no special protection for pregnant women during the entire period of pregnancy (other than the prohibition of dismissal on the ground of pregnancy). However, dismissal is "per se" prohibited during maternity leave: art. 130 LC.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Art. 76 LC.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Under the LC, the statutory minimum notice period is 14 days, increased by 7 days for each year of service (art. 64).
However, the Ministerial Order no 12/CAB.MIN/TPS/117/2005 dated 26 October 2005 sets out notice periods which vary according to the category of workers concerned.
- For workers belonging to categories 1 to 5 (ranging from unskilled to highly skilled workers), the notice period is the same as the one set out in art. 64 LC (minimum 14 days, increased by 7 days for each completed year of service) (art. 6 MO no 12).
- For first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise"), the notice period is minimum 1 month, increased by 9 days for each completed year of service (art. 7 MO no 12).
- For managerial positions ("cadre de direction et cadre de collaboration"), the notice period is minimum 3 months, increased by 16 days for each completed year of service (art. 8)
[Note that we have considered here that 1 months = 30 days].

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • cadres et assimilés: 3 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 1 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 0.47 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • cadres et assimilés: 3 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 1 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 0.47 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • cadres et assimilés: 4.07 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 1.6 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 0.93 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • cadres et assimilés: 5.13 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 2.2 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 1.4 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • cadres et assimilés: 5.67 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 2.5 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 1.63 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • cadres et assimilés: 8.33 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 3.67 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 2.8 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • cadres et assimilés: 13.67 mois.
  • agents de maîtrise, techniciens, ingénieurs et cadres: 7 mois.
  • travailleurs de catégories 1 à 5: 5.13 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Art. 63 LC.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Remarks

Except in case of economic dismissals (art. 78 LC).

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

Except in case of economic dismissals (art. 78 LC).

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): *There is a definition of mas dismissals, which are those concerning:
- 3 workers in undertakings with not more than 10 workers;
- 4 workers in undertakings with 11 to 20 workers;
- 10 workers in undertakings with 21 to 100 workers;
- 30 workers in undertakings with 101 to 500 workers;
- 50 workers in undertakings with 501 to 1000 workers;
- 100 workers in undertakings with 1001 to 2000;
- 200 workers in undertakings with 2001 to 4000 workers;
- 250 workers in undertakings with 4001 to 6000 workers;
- 300 workers in undertakings with more than 6000 workers.
Mass dismissals are PROHIBITED unless authorization is granted by the Ministry of labour.

*The law authorizes dismissals for economic reasons or based on operational requirements of the undertaking of one or more employees but which do not fall within the definition of mass dismissal (see above).

Remarks

Art. 78 LC: Mass dismissals are prohibited, except in certain cases to be determined by the Ministry of Labour.
The Ministerial Order N° 12/CAB.MIN/TPS/116/2005 of 26 October 2005 provides a definition of mass dismissal (art. 1) and specific procedure to be followed in the event of termination of one or more employees for economic reasons or based on the operational requirement of the undertaking (see art. 5 to 8).

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Art. 78 LC.

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Art. 78 LC.
See also art. 4, 5 and 7 of the Ministerial Order no n° 12/CAB.MIN/TPS/116/2005 dated 26 October 2005:
- Mass dismissals based on the operational requirement of the undertaking must be authorized by the Ministry of Labour (art. 4).
- Dismissals connected the operational requirements of the enterprise which do not amount to mass dismissal as defined in art. 1 (see definition above) must be notified to and authorized by the labour inspector (art. 5).
- Dismissals based on economic reasons of one or more workers which do not reach the required numbers for mass dismissal shall be notified to and approved by the labour inspector (art 8).

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 78 LC.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Oui

Remarks

See also art. 4, 5 and 7 of the Ministerial Order no nu00b0 12/CAB.MIN/TPS/116/2005 dated 26 October 2005:
- Mass dismissals based on the operational requirement of the undertaking must be authorized by the Ministry of Labour (art. 4).
- Dismissals connected the operational requirements of the entreprise which do not amount to mass dismissal as defined in art. 1 (see definition above) must be notified to and authorized by the labour inspector (art. 5).
- Dismissals based on economic reasons of one or more workers which do not reach the required numbers for mass dismissal shall be notified to and approved by the labour inspector (art 8).

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Oui

Remarks

Art. 78 LC. Criteria to be considered are: professional skills, job tenure, family responsibilities.

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Oui

Remarks

Art. 78 LC: preferential right to re-employment for 1 year.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

No general right to severance pay.

However commercial workers may be entitled to severance pay.
See, the Observation made by ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations in 2008 under the Termination of Employment Convention No. 158:
"The Government indicated that the provisions of this Article of the Convention are given effect to only by a Memorandum of Understanding concluded in October 1999 between company heads of the commerce sector represented by the Congolese Federation of Enterprises (FEC) and various trade union organizations, which provides for payment of a severance allowance, the amount of which depends on the length of service. The Committee noted that the Memorandum of Understanding was concluded under section 49 of the Labour Code which provides that a worker whose employment has been terminated may also be paid a termination allowance if the contract or collective agreement so provides. In this respect, the Committee recalls, once again, that under Article 1 of the Convention, where the provisions of the Convention are not made effective by means of collective agreements, arbitration awards or court decisions or in such other manner as may be consistent with national practice, they shall be given effect to by laws or regulations. The Committee also recalls that under Article 12, paragraph 1, a worker whose employment has been terminated is entitled to a severance allowance or any other form of income protection or benefit, and trusts that the Government will take the necessary steps to give effect to this provision of the Convention for workers who are not covered by the Memorandum of Understanding in the commerce sector or any other collective agreement, and that it will provide this information in its next report. The Government is also requested to indicate the manner in which it gives effect to Article 12, paragraph 3, under which, in the event of termination for serious misconduct, provision may be made for loss of entitlements or allowances by the methods of implementation referred to in Article 1 of the Convention".

- Please note that no information was found as whether this 1999 memorandum of understanding, which provides for severance pay for commercial workers upon termination, is still in force.
- Please also note that the provision concerning severance pay on which the memorandum of understanding was based (art. 49 LC) refers to the former 1962 Labour Code and has been repealed in the 2002 Labour Code.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

No statutory severance pay or redundancy payment foreseen by the LC.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Remarks

Art. 63 LC.

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): Dismissal with no valid reason: compensation is fixed by the court, but shall not exceed 36 months.

Remarks

Art. 63 LC.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

Art. 63 LC.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

Remarks

Mandatory preliminary extra judicial conciliation before the Labour Inspector: Art. 300 LC and art. 25 Act 016/2002 on creation, organization, and functioning of the Labour Tribunals.

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

Remarks

Art. 63 LC.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non