CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: aucune limitation

Remarks

However, existence of safeguards.
1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "chain contracts" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

However, existence of safeguards.
1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "chain contract" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

However, existence of safeguards.
1) According to Art. 334 CO, if a fixed-term contract is tacitly renewed, it is deemed concluded for an indefinite duration.
2) Art. 2, al 2 Civil code on fraud has been interpreted as preventing the use of "contrats en chaîne" when not justified by any objective reason and aiming at circumventing the terms and conditions of dismissals prescribed by law or the application (case law of the Federal Tribunal).

% de travailleurs sous CDD: 13.3

Remarks

Source: Eurostat, annual average for 2009.
The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
"A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 3 mois

Remarks

Art. 335b(2) CO.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

The Swiss CO distinguishes between two categories of individual dismissals:
1) Ordinary dismissal ("congé") by one of the party with a notice period:
Written justification must be provided upon request by the other party (art. 335 CO).

2) Termination by one one the party with immediate effect:
Written justification must be provided upon request of the other party (art. 337 (1) CO).

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): aucun

Remarks

The employment contract can be terminated by either party provided that notice period requirements are complied with.
No list of valid grounds is provided. However, this does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds. In addition, the CO states that dismissal ("congé") should not constitute an abuse of right (art. 336 CO).

For Termination with immediate effect (no notice) fair reasons are requested. (art. 337 (1) CO)

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, congé de matérnité, responsabilités familiales, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, couleur, sexe, orientation sexuelle, opinion politique, origine sociale, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, accomplissement du service militaire ou civil, exercice d'un droit, état de santé, antécédents judiciaires ou non révélation de ces antécédents

Remarks

Amongst those prohibited grounds, only "trade union activities", "performing Swiss military service or civil service", "exercise of a constitutional right" and "solely frustrate the formation of claims of the other party arising out of the employment relationship" are specifically mentioned in Art 336 CO concerning unfair dismissal.

However, art. 336 (1) a) CO refers to "quality inherent to the personality of the other party, unless such quality relates to the employment relationship or significantly impairs cooperation within the enterprise".
This should be read in the light of Art. 8 of the Swiss Constitution that specifically establishes a general prohibition based in particular on grounds of origin, race, gender, age, language, way of life, religious, ideological, or political convictions or because of a physical, mental or psychological disability.

See Art. 336c (1) b) for temporary (work) injury or illness. Only additional safeguards (timeframe) during which dismissal is not possible are provided. This ground could constitute cause of dismissal if it impairs cooperation within the enterprise.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs ayant une longue ancienneté

Remarks

*No dismissal of pregnant women and women on maternity leave: art. 336c (1) c) CO
* Workers with an important length of tenure: higher protection with respect to severance allowance: art. 339c CO.
* Workers' representatives: constitutes an abusive termination the dismissal of an employee during the exercise of a mandate as employees' representative unless the employer demonstrates a justified motive for dismissal: art. 336 (2) b) CO.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

However, according to Art. 335 (2) CO, the party giving notice should state the reason for terminating employment in writing if requested by the other party.
The same rule applies in case of dismissal with immediate effect : art. 337 CO.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

1) For ordinary dismissals:
According to art. 335c CO, the general rule on the notice period is the following:
*1 month during the first year of service;
*2 months between 2 and 9 years of service;
*3 months over 9 years of service.

These timeframes can be modified by written agreement, collective agreement but shall not be less than 1 month.
Exceptions to this rule are permitted only during the first year of service and if set by a collective agreement (art. 335c (2) CO).

2) Specific rules apply to FTC:
No notice period is prescribed except for FTC concluded for up to 10 years (art. 334 (1) CO).
For FTC concluded for more than 10 years, a notice period of 6 months should be respected by either party (art. 334 (2) CO).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 2 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 2 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 2 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 3 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 3 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): Collective dismissals are those made by the employer within a period of 30 days for reasons which are not related to the personality of the workers and affecting the following numbers of workers:
1) at least 10 workers in undertakings employing between 20 and 100 workers;
2) at least 10% of the workforce in undertakings employing between 100 and 300 workers
3) at least 30 workers in establishments employing at least 300 workers.

Remarks

Art. 335d CO.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

Art. 335f CO.

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Art. 335g CO.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Art. 335f CO.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks

335 f 2) CO: the employer must allow the workers' representatives to formulate proposals aiming at avoiding dismissals or mitigating their adverse effects.

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

No general statutory severance pay or redundancy payment scheme. However, upon termination of the contract by either parties, a worker is at least 50 years old and has 20 or more or more years of service with the same employer is entitled to a long service payment ("indemnité à raison de longs rapports de travail")(art. 339c CO).
As a minimum, this payment should amount to 2 months wages and shall not exceed 8 months: art. 339c (1) &(2) CO. However, it may be reduced in part or cancelled if the employee terminates his contract without proper justification, if the employer summarily dismiss him for valid reasons or of if the payment of this amount would result in difficulties for the employer (art. 339c (3) CO).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

No general statutory severance pay or redundancy payment scheme.
However, upon termination of the contract by either parties, a worker is at least 50 years old and has 20 or more or more years of service with the same employer is entitled to a long service payment ("indemnité à raison de longs rapports de travail": art. 339c CO).
As a minimum, this payment should amount to 2 months wages and shall not exceed 8 months: art. 339c (1) &(2) CO. However, it may be reduced in part or canceled if the employee terminates his contract without proper justification, if the employer summarily dismiss him for valid reasons or of if the payment of this amount would result in difficulties for the employer (art. 339c (3) CO).

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): 1) Ordinary dismissal constituting an abuse of rights:
- Compensation awarded by the judge cannot exceed 6 months' wages.
2) Dismissal with immediate effect, when there is no fair reason:
- In addition to the amount the worker would have earned if the notice period had been observed, the judge may award compensation which cannot exceed 6 months' wages.

Remarks

1) Ordinary dismissals constituting an abuse of rights:
art. 336a 2 CO.
2) Dismissals with immediate effect in the absence of fair reason: art. 337c CO.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Non

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: juridiction ordinaire

Remarks

According to Art. 343 CO, the procedure is to be conducted at a cantonal level. Depending on the canton, cases are either heard by a civil court or by a labour court.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Oui