CDD reglementés: Non

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: aucune limitation

Remarks

No statutory limitations.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

No statutory limitations.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

No statutory limitations.

% de travailleurs sous CDD: 13.7

Remarks

Statistics for 2011.
Source OECD statistics /Labour Force/Permanent temporary employment.
These statistics correspond to the percentage of temporary workers out of the total of employees reported. Temporary workers are based on the following definition: "A temporary job has a pre-determined end date or will end as soon as project is completed or a fixed term contract".

(http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx)

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois):

Remarks

No statutory limitations.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement Non

Remarks

No general obligation on the part of the employer to indicate the reasons for the dismissal to employees when dismissing them.
However, the employer shall provide a written statement indicating the reasons for dismissal upon request by the employee or the inspector in the process of a complaint for unjust dismissal. According to sec. 241. (1) CLC, this only applies to employees described in sec. 240(1). This covers any employee:
(a) who has completed twelve consecutive months of continuous employment by an employer, and
(b) who is not a member of a group of employees subject to a collective agreement.
In addition this provision is subject to the restrictions set up in sec. 242(3.1): complaints of unjust dismissal do not cover lay-off due to lack of work or the discontinuance of a function.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime

Remarks

The CLC does not contain as such a provision requiring that termination with notice be justified by a fair reason. However, this is implied from the division XIV of the Code on "unjust dismissal". This division provides for the right of an employee who has completed 12 consecutive months of continuous employment and is not covered by a collective agreement to make a complaint of unjust dismissal to the competent authority which may order reinstatement or compensation if the dismissal is found to be unjust. (sec. 240 and 242 CLC)
Complaint of unjust dismissal are not available to employees who have been laid off because of lack of work or because of the discontinuance of a function (sec. 242 (3.1) CLC)

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, congé de matérnité, responsabilités familiales, avoir déposé une plainte contre l'employeur, maladie ou accident professionel temporaire, race, couleur, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, dénonciation/ alerte, soulever des préoccupations de santé et sécurité au travail, origine ethnique

Remarks

Sec. 94 (3) CLC:
"Prohibitions relating to employers:
No employer or person acting on behalf of an employer shall
(a) refuse to employ or to continue to employ or suspend, transfer, lay off or otherwise discriminate against any person with respect to employment, pay or any other term or condition of employment or intimidate, threaten or otherwise discipline any person, because the person
(i) is or proposes to become, or seeks to induce any other person to become, a member, officer or representative of a trade union or participates in the promotion, formation or administration of a trade union,
(ii) has been expelled or suspended from membership in a trade union for a reason other than a failure to pay the periodic dues, assessments and initiation fees uniformly required to be paid by all members of the trade union as a condition of acquiring or retaining membership in the trade union,
(iii) has testified or otherwise participated or may testify or otherwise participate in a proceeding under this Part,
(iv) has made or is about to make a disclosure that the person may be required to make in a proceeding under this Part,
(v) has made an application or filed a complaint under this Part, or
(vi) has participated in a strike that is not prohibited by this Part or exercised any right under this Part;"

In addition, under the CLC, the following situations constitute invalid grounds for the dismissal of an employee:
- the employee has participated in proceeding or inquiry (filing a complaint, testifying) regarding occupational and health and safety matters. (sec. 147 CLC)
- the employee is pregnant or has requested maternity or parental leave (sec. 209.3 CLC);
- garnishment proceedings may be or have been taken against the employee (sec. 238, CLC);
- the employee has been absent due to illness or injury(sec. 239 CLC);
- the employee is absent from work due to work-related illness or injury (sec. 239.1(1) CLC).

In addition, see the general prohibition of discrimination including in employment matters contained in the Canadian Human Rights Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. H-6: see sec. 3 on grounds of discrimination together with art. 7 on discriminatory practice in employment that prohibits an employer from refusing to employ or continuing to employ an individual on a prohibited grounds of discrimination.
See also sec. 14.1 on prohibition of retaliation for filing a complaint of discrimination.
(The prohibited grounds of discrimination are the following: race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex (which includes pregnancy or child-birth), sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability and conviction for an offence for which a pardon has been granted or in respect of which a record suspension has been ordered

Note that this Act only applies within the realm of federal jurisdiction; each provincial and territorial government has enacted its own anti-discrimination legislation.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière:

Remarks

No statutory provision found in the legislation reviewed.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: écrite

Remarks

Sec. 230(1)a) CLC.

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Sec. 230 CLC: An employer who dismisses a worker who has worked continuously for at least three consecutive months is obliged to give the worker notice of termination in writing at least two weeks in advance, or to pay compensation in lieu of notice except when the employee is dismissed for just cause (summary dismissal) (sec. 230, CLC).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • Tous: 0.5 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 230(1)b) CLC.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Remarks

However, notification to the trade union is foreseen by sec. 230(2) CLC in one specific situation namely where an employee bound by a collective agreement and whose position becomes redundant is authorized to displace an employee with less seniority. In that case, the employer must give at least two weeks' notice in writing to the trade union and the employee whose position becomes redundant and post a copy of the notice in a conspicuous place within the industrial establishment in which the employee is employed. Alternately, the employer may, as a result of the redundancy of the position, terminate the employment provided that he or she gives two week's wages to the employee.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): Concerning at least 50 employees in an industrial establishment either simultaneously or within a period not exceeding 4 weeks.

Remarks

Sec. 212 CLC.
Note that the procedural requirements for collective dismissal may also apply to collective termination of a smaller number of employees (less than 50) in a particular occupational classification, industry or in an industrial
establishment if so provided in regulations made by the Governor in Council (sec. 227 b) CLC)

Note that in certain cases the requirements pertaining to collective dismissals may not apply:
- Waiver of collective termination provisions (sec. 228 CLC): On the submission of any person, the Minister may waive the application of any or all provisions governing collective dismissal with respect to any industrial establishment or any class of employees therein if it is shown to the satisfaction of the Minister that such application:
(a) would be or is unduly prejudicial to the
interests of the employees therein;
(b) would be or is unduly prejudicial to the interests of the employer;
(c) would be or is seriously detrimental to the operation of the industrial establishment;
(d) is not necessary, because measures for the assistance of redundant employees at that establishment that are substantially the same or to the same effect as the measures established by the provisions on collective termination have been established by collective agreement or otherwise.


- The Governor in Council may make regulations exempting employers from the application of the provision on collective termination with respect to employees on a seasonal or irregular basis (sec. 228 CLC).

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Oui

Remarks

As soon as notice has been submitted to the Minister and to the trade union or directly to the employees, the employer must set up a joint planning committee consisting of at least four members, half of whom should be representatives of the redundant employees and the others, representatives of the employer (sec. 214 CLC).

The objective of the joint planning committee is to develop an adjustment programme aimed at eliminating the necessity for the termination of employment, to minimizing the impact of the termination on the redundant employees and assisting them in obtaining other employment (sec. 221(1) CLC).

Notification à l'administration publique: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 212 CLC: the employer must give the Minister of Labour written notification at least 16 weeks before the date of the first dismissal. A copy of this notice should also be submitted to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development and the Canada Employment Insurance Commission.

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Oui

Remarks

Sec. 212(2) CLC: Written notification at least 16 weeks before the date of the first dismissal to any trade union representing the redundant employees concerned. Where any redundant employee is not represented by a trade union, a copy of that notice should be given to the employee or immediately posted by the employer in a conspicuous place within the industrial establishment in which that employee is employed.

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Oui

Remarks

Within the joint planning committee, the employer participates through its representatives to the development of the adjustment programme aimed at eliminating the necessity for the termination of employment, to minimizing the impact of the termination on the redundant employees and assisting them in obtaining other employment (sec. 221(1) CLC).

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

See sec. 235 CLC:
Upon termination of employment by the employer, except in the event of dismissal for just cause (summary dismissal), an employee who has completed 12 months of continuous employment is entitled to severance pay which shall amount to the greater of:
- two days' wages (at the regular rate for regular hours of work) for each completed year of service; or
- five days' wages (at the regular rate for regular hours of work).

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0.7 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1.3 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

No specific redundancy payment. An employee whose employment is terminated by way of redundancy will be entitled to severance pay as provided in sec. 235 CLC.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0.2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0.7 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 1.3 mois