CDD reglementés: Oui

Remarks

Fixed term contracts are regulated with the Law Decree Nº 16187 of 1979

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: raisons matérielles et objectives

Remarks

Art. 2 of Law Decree No 16187: FTC are not allowed for permanent tasks or for those that are characteristic of the business.

See also: Resolución Ministerial 283/62 of 13 June 1962 according to which the contract should, by default, be considered as a contract of undefinite duration, unless the nature of the task, work or service, justifies the conclusion of a FTC.

See also the principle of "labour stability" established under Article 11 of Supreme Decree No. 28699, of 1st May 2006.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: 2

Remarks

Art. 2 of the Law Decree No 16187

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: 12mois

Remarks

Resolución Ministerial No 283/62 del 13 de junio de 1962

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 3 mois

Remarks

Art. 13 of the Labour Code: When an employer or worker is dismissed for due to the employer´s initiative, the employer must compensate the worker for the service, with the amount of one month salary for every year of work. If the time of service does not amount to one year, compensation will be proportional to the number of worked months, excluding the three first months which are considered probationary period. If the employee has worked for more than 8 years, the compensation to be paid will be equally to the one paid in case of voluntary dismissal.

Note: Supreme Decree No. 17289, of 1980, exempts certain categories of workers from the probationary period of Article 13 of the Labour Code.

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): conduite du travailleur

Remarks

Art. 16 of the Labour Code sets out the following causes for the termination of employment and in these cases there is no entitlement to severance pay or compensation:
a) Intentional material damage to working tools/ instruments
b) Revelation of industrial secrets
c) Imprudence or omission impacting industrial security or hygiene
d) Partial or complete breach of agreement
e) Larceny or robbery committed by the employee

Motifs prohibés: état matrimonial, grossesse, couleur, sexe, orientation sexuelle, religion, opinion politique, nationalité/origine nationale, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales, handicap, statut financier, langue, naissance, origine ethnique

Remarks

After the adoption of Supreme Decree No. 28699, of 1st May 2006, any dismissal that is based on grounds that are not included in the list established by Article 16 LC is to be considered against labour stability, which means that the worker affected can request the Labour Authority to order reinstatement. Therefore, only the grounds based on worker’s conduct are not prohibited (Art. 10, Supreme Decree No. 28699).

According to Art. 14 of the Bolivian Constitution, regarding trade union membership and activities, only the leaders of workers' organizations are protected; they cannot be dismissed without prior authorization from the Labour Court. (Art. 2 of the Legislative Decree No. 37 of 7 February 1944). Worker in state of pregnancy or in maternity leave are also protected from dismissals, according to Article 61 of the Labour Code and Supreme Decree No. 12 of 19 February 2009. Likewise, protection of workers with disabilities (and their family members, under certain conditions): Supreme Decree No 27477, of 6 May 2004.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière: représentants des travailleurs, femmes enceintes ou en congé de maternité, travailleurs handicapés

Remarks

Article 14 of the Constitution: General provision against discrimination

Trade union leaders: Under Art. 14 of the Bolivian Constitution, with respect to trade union membership and activities, only the leaders of workers' organizations are protected; they cannot be dismissed without prior authorization from the Labour Court. (Art. 2 of the Legislative Decree No. 37 of 7 February 1944).

Maternity protection: Article 61 of the Labour Code; Supreme Decree No. 12 of 19 February 2009

Protection of workers with disabilities (and their family members, under certain conditions): Supreme Decree No 27477, of 6 May 2004

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: aucune forme particulière requise

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

Art. 12 of the LC provides for the following notice periods:

1. Labour contract with workers (”obreros"):
a.) 1 week of advance notice for contracts longer than one month;
b.) 15 days of advance notice for contracts longer than six months;
c.) 30 days of advance notice period for contracts longer than one year.

2. Labour contracts with employees ("empleados") require a notice period of 90 days if the contract has been consecutively longer than 3 months.

Note: the difference between “worker” and “employee” can be found in Article 2 of the Labour Code; the difference is based on the nature of the tasks for which they are contracted.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 0.25 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 0.5 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • travailleurs permanents: 3 mois.
  • travailleurs temporaires: 1 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

Art. 12 of the Labour Code

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): Collective dismissal is not defined by law. Article 14 of the Labour Code provides that in case of cease of activities due to bankruptcy or "verified losses" ("peridas comprobadas"), the compensation shall be half of the usual amount, and workers credits shall be given priority.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

Art. 13 of the Labour Code: When an employer or worker is dismissed for a reason other than his/her own will, the employer must compensate him/her for the service, with the amount of one month salary for every year of work. If the time of service does not amount to one year, compensation will be proportional to the number of worked months, excluding the three first months which are considered probationary period. If the employee has worked for more than 8 years, he/she will perceive the compensation even if he/she voluntarily leaves the job.

No severance pay if the worker was dismissed with just cause.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0.5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 4 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 10 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 20 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

Article 14 of the Labour Code provides that in case of cease of activities due to bankruptcy or verified losses ("peridas comprobadas"), the compensation shallbe half of the the usual amount, and workers credits shall be given priority.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0.1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0.3 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 1 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2.5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 5 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 10 mois

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Non

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?: Oui

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - limites légales (plafond en mois ou methode de calcul définie): Article 13 of Labour Code provides that when the worker is dismissed by the employer for unfair reasons, the employer shall be obliged, regardless of the eviction, to compensate the worker for the time of service, with the sum equivalent to one month's salary or salary for each year of continuous work; and if the services do not reach one year, proportionally to the months worked; it will be computed from the date in which they were hired, verbally or in writing, including the months that are considered proof. Only the period corresponding to the initial period of the first three months is deemed to be a trial period, but not to subsequent periods resulting from renewal or extension. If the worker had more than 8 years of service, the compensation to be paid will be in qual amount of the one to be paid in case of voluntary dismissal.

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

Articles 10 and 11 of Supreme Decree No. 28699 provides for the possibility for employees to choose between reinstatement or compensation in case of unfair dismissal.
If the employee opts for reinstatement, he/she can request the Labour Authority to issue a reinstatement order, provided that the dismissal is proved to be unjustified.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Non

Remarks

Only for collective labour disputes

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: tribunal du travail

Remarks

Article 6 of Labour Code Procedure provides that the special jurisdiction of labour and social security is exercised permanently:

a) By the Labour and Social Security Courts, as first instance courts;
b) By the National Labour and Social Security Court, as the Court of Appeal; and
c) By the Supreme Court of Justice in its Social and Administrative Chamber, as Court of Cassation.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

Remarks

Only in the case of collective labour dispute

Charge de la preuve: employeur

Remarks

Article 3 (h) Code of Labour Procedure.