CDD reglementés: Oui

Motifs autorisés de recours au CDD: aucune limitation

Remarks

No provision on FTC in the legislation reviewed.

Nombre maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

No provision limiting the use of FTC in the legislation reviewed.

Durée cumulée maximum de CDD successifs: aucune limitation

Remarks

No provision limiting the use of FTC in the legislation reviewed.

Durée maximale de la période d'essai (en mois): 3 mois

Remarks

Sec. C8 LC: The probation period may not exceed 3 months, unless there is provision for a greater period in a collective agreement.
During his probation period, an employee's employment may be terminated without any reason.

Obligation d'informer le travailleur des raisons du licenciement: Oui

Remarks

Upon termination by an employer subsequent to the expiration of the probation period, the employer is required to furnish a written statement indicating the precise reason for the termination within seven days of termination or notice thereof (see sec. C10 LC as amended by sec. 8 LCA).

Motifs autorisés (licenciement justifié): tout motif légitime

Remarks

Sec. C56 LC: After the expiry of the probationary period, every employee has the right not to be unfairly dismissed and no employer shall dismiss any such employee without just cause.

According to sec. C58 LC a dismissal is not unfair if the reason behind it:
- relates to misconduct of the employee,
- relates to the capability or qualifications of the employee to perform work
- is that the employee was redundant;
- is that the employee could not continue to work in the position he held without contravention (on his or on the employer's part) of a requirement of law; or
- is prolonged illness or some other substantial reason of a kind which would entitle a reasonable employer to dismiss an employee holding the position which the employee held (inserted by sec. 18 LCA)
There needs to be a factual basis for the assigned reason.
The test for deciding whether or not a dismissal was unfair is whether or not, under the circumstances the employer acted unreasonably or reasonably.

Motifs prohibés: race, couleur, sexe, religion, opinion politique, âge, affiliation et activités syndicales

Remarks

The LC does not expressly provide a list of prohibited grounds for dismissal.
However, sec. C4(1) LC prohibits discrimination with respect to hire, tenure, wages, hours, or any other condition of work on the grounds of race, colour, creed, sex, age or political beliefs.
On trade union membership or activities, see sec. K(3) and K(4) LC.

Travailleurs bénéficiant d'une protection particulière:

Remarks

No provision found in the legislation reviewed.

Forme de la notification du licenciement au travailleur: aucune forme particulière requise

Remarks

The LC does not specify whether the employer's notice of termination shall be written or not (see. sec. C9 LC).
The employer is however required to furnish a written statement indicating the reasons for dismissal within seven days of termination or notice thereof (see sec. C10 LC as amended by sec. 8 LCA).

Délai de préavis:

Remarks

See sec. C9(3) LC.
- The period of said advance notice shall be at least equivalent to the interval of time between the affected employee's paydays. It shall not exceed 30 days unless a longer notice period is stipulated in an employment contract.
- With respect to an employee serving a probation period, an employer must give at least 24 hours advance notice of his intention to terminate that person's employment.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 1 an:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans:

  • travailleur payés au mois: 1 mois.

Indemnité compensatrice de préavis: Oui

Remarks

See sec. C9(4) LC.

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Définition du licenciement collectif (nombre d'employés concernés): No number specified in the LC.

Remarks

The LC only provides for a definition of redundancy without specifying the number of employees concerned.
See sec. C3 LC, as amended by sec. 7 LCA:
"'redundancy' means a situation in which by virtue of lack of customers orders, retrenchment, the installation of labour saving machinery, an employer's going out of business, a force majeure, or any other reason, work which a person was last employed to perform has ceased or substantially diminished".

Note that there are no additional requirements (such as notification or consultation) applicable to redundancy.

Consultation préalable des syndicats (représentants des travailleurs): Non

Notification à l'administration publique: Non

Notification aux représentants des travailleurs: Non

Autorisation de l'administration publique ou d'un organe judiciaire: Non

Accord des représentants des travailleurs: Non

Règles de priorité pour l'ordre des des licenciements collectifs (situation sociale, âge, ancienneté): Non

Obligation de l'employeur d'examiner des solutions alternatives au licenciement (transferts, formation...): Non

Règles de priorité de réembauche: Non

Notes / Remarques

Notes

The LC does not foresee any specific legal regime applicable to collective dismissal.

Indemnité de licenciement:

Remarks

No severance pay upon dismissal for reasons other than redundancy (sec. C40 LC)

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 0 mois

Indemnité de licenciement pour motif économique:

Remarks

See sec. C40 and 41 LC: provided that an employee has served at least one year with his or her present and predecessor employers, he or she will be entitled redundancy pay at a rate of at least one day's pay, at the employee's latest basic wage, for each month or major fraction thereof of his term of employment with his employer and any predecessor employer.

ancienneté ≥ 6 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 9 mois: 0 mois

ancienneté ≥ 1 an: 0.4 mois

ancienneté ≥ 2 ans: 0.8 mois

ancienneté ≥ 4 ans: 1.6 mois

ancienneté ≥ 5 ans: 2 mois

ancienneté ≥ 10 ans: 4 mois

ancienneté ≥ 20 ans: 8 mois

Notes / Remarques

Notes

Dismissal other than by reason of redundancy: no severance pay
Dismissal by reason of redundancy: redundancy pay

Compensation pour licenciement injustifié - montant librement déterminé par la cour: Oui

Remarks

See sec. B12 LC, as amended by sec. 6 of LCA: In an unfair dismissal or suspension without pay matter, a decisional officer may order the payment of a sum of money equal to loss of wages sustained and, in addition thereto he may also order the re-instatement or restoration of the person dismissed or suspended, or the payment of a sum of money in lieu of such reinstatement"

Possibilité de réintégration dans l'emploi: Oui

Remarks

See sec. B12 LC as amended by sec. 6 LCA.

Conciliation préalable obligatoire: Oui

Remarks

Complaints of unfair dismissals shall be first brought to the Labour Commissioner who shall seek to settle the matter by voluntary adjustment or settlement within 10 days. Conciliation or mediation may be used for those purposes (see sec. C60, C61 together with sec. B5 LC).
Failing to achieve voluntary adjustment or settlement, he shall transmit the matter to the Minister in charge of Labour who shall also himself attempt to achieve voluntary adjustment or settlement of the matter by taking whatever steps he deems appropriate.(sec. C62 together with sec. B6 LC) If these attempts do not yield any results, the Minister shall take a number of steps available to him (sec. B6(2) LC) including referral of the matter to a Hearing officer (sec. C63 LC).

Courts ou tribunaux compétents: autorité administative

Remarks

The Hearing Officer is competent to hear complaints of unfair dismissal (upon referral by the Minister) and impose appropriate remedies (damages or reinstatement in addition to the payment of loss wages) (see. sec. B12, and C63 LC).

It should be noted that the Industrial Relations Court has jurisdiction over trade disputes (collective disputes) and does not generally have jurisdiction over individual disputes such as disputes concerning dismissal.
However, according to sec. 10 ICA provides that in addition to its jurisdiction, in any dispute concerning the dismissal of an employee, if in the opinion of the Court, an employee has been dismissed in circumstances that are harsh and oppressive or not in accordance with the principles of good industrial relations practice, it may order the re-employment or re-instatement of the employee and/or the payment of compensation or damages, or the payment of exemplary damages in lieu of such re-employment or re-instatement.

Règlement des litiges individuels par arbitrage: Non

Remarks

Dismissals complaints do not fall within the jurisdiction of the Arbitration Tribunal which is only competent to hear and determine any major trade dispute (sec. B8 LC). [A major dispute is a dispute which has led to an interruption of work which is continuing; or if there is no present interruption of work, may lead to an interruption of work: sec. K13 LC)

% de litiges relatifs au licenciement par raport au nombre total de litiges: 46

Remarks

Statistics for 2007 (% of termination, suspension, redundancy, lay-off disputes), from the Labour Department of Antigua and Barbuda.