CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

Art. 76 LC states that the fixed-term contracts may be concluded:
*in cases where contracts for an indefinite period cannot be concluded with regard to the nature of the work, the conditions for its implementation or the interests of the employee;
*with the director, his/hers deputies, or a chief accountant, and in the absence of the company's chief accountant - with the employee performing the functions of the chief accountant
*in other cases stipulated by law.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 60meses

Remarks

Art. 75 LC states that the employment contract may be concluded:
*for an indefinite period;
*for a specified period not exceeding five years;
*for the duration of a specific job.

If an employment contract does not stipulate the validity period, the contract is concluded for an indefinite period. (Art. 75 LC)

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 3 meses

Remarks

Art. 85 LC

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

According to the Art. 100 LC the termination of the employment contract concluded for an indefinite period, as well as the termination of a fixed-term contract before its expiration by the employer must be justified.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas

Remarks

An employer is entitled to terminate an employment agreement with an employee only on the grounds provided in Article 100 LC, namely:
- Changes in technology, organisation of production and work, or a reduction of the scope of work resulting in a change in the number of staff or a change in the nature of the work, or the liquidation of the Company;
- Inconsistent job performance due to insufficient qualifications or for health reasons;
- Systematic violation by the employee of his or her labour duties;
- A single gross violation by the employee of his or her labour duties;
- Termination of an employment agreement with part time employees when they are replaced with full time employees;
- Termination of an employment agreement with the management of an enterprise in connection with a change in ownership.

Motivos prohibidos: raza, sexo, religión, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, lengua, propriedad, antecedentes judiciales o no revelación de aquéllos

Remarks

Art. 6 LC: Prohibition of discrimination in employment.
Art. 25 LC: Additional employment guaranties for members of representative bodies.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con licencia temporal por enfermedad

Remarks

Article 25 LC provides additional labor guarantees for workers’ representatives. They are protected from harassment by the employer in connection with their functions and activities. Imposture of disciplinary sanctions against workers’ representatives and the termination of labour relations with them at the initiative of the employer is prohibited without the prior consent of the local labor authorities.

Art. 100.7 LC prohibits termination of a labor contract at the initiative of the employer during worker’s temporary incapacity to perform work and during leave from work, except cases of complete liquidation of the enterprise.

Article 237 LC provides guarantees for pregnant women and women with children. Termination of an employment contract with pregnant women and women with children younger than three years old at the initiative of the employer is not allowed, except in cases of complete liquidation of the enterprise.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 102 LC

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 102 LC provides for the following notice period: 2 months in cases of the termination due to changes in technology, production and labor organization, reduced volumes of work that resulted in changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, or in connection with the liquidation of the company as well as in connection with reaching the retirement age when the employee has the right to receive the state pension; 2 weeks when the termination occurred due to employees' incapability to perform the work because of lack of qualifications or health status; 3 days when terminated due to the employee's own culpable conduct (a single gross or a systematic violation of labour discipline).

However, art. 102 also states that the two-month and three-day notice period may be replaced by corresponding compensation at the employer's discretion. The two-week notice stipulated above shall not be given when an employment agreement is terminated due to the employee's inability to perform the duties of his or her job for health reasons where there is a medical certificate confirming that the job is contraindicated to the employee. In this case, the employee shall be paid compensation in the amount of two weeks' wages.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.
  • Todos: 0.1 meses.
  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

According to the Art. 102 LC in cases of termination of employment by the employer the notice period can be replaced with the monetary compensation corresponding to the duration of notice, at the employer's discretion.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 102 LC states that the employer is obliged to inform the local authority of labour, not later than two months before the termination, on the upcoming dismissal and to provide data of each employee, indicating his profession, qualifications and wages

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 101 LC states that the termination of the employment contract by the employer is not allowed without the prior consent of the trade union committee or other representative body of employees, in the case when the obligation for such consent is provided by collective agreement.

The trade union committee or other representative body of employees must notify the employer in writing of its decision within ten days of receipt of the written submission on the intention of termination.
An employer may terminate an employment contract within one month from the date of the trade union's committee or other representative's body of employees decision to consent to the termination of employment.

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): There is no quantitative definition in the Labour Law.

Art. 100.1 states that the contract of employment can be terminated due to changes in technology, organisation of production and work, or a reduction of the scope of work resulting in a change in the number of staff or a change in the nature of the work, or the liquidation of the Company.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 101.1 LC

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 102 LC

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Art. 103 LC reads as following:

Upon the termination of the employment contract due to changes in technology, production and labor, reduced work that led to changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, the right to remain at work is granted to employees with higher skills and productivity.

In case of equal qualifications and productivity the employees preferred are:
1) workers with two or more dependents;
2) persons in a family where there are no other employees with an independent income;
3) workers with long experience in the enterprise;
4) employees that increase their skills on the job by the relevant specialty in higher and secondary special and professional educational institutions
5) persons who have received occupational injury or illness in the enterprise;
6) The war invalids, war veterans and persons equated to them;
7) persons who have received or suffered radiation sickness and other diseases associated with increased radiation, caused by the consequences of accidents at nuclear facilities, the disabled, for which a disability occurred as a consequence of accidents at nuclear facilities, participants of liquidation of these accidents and disasters, and as well as individuals evacuated or displaced from these areas and others, persons equated to them.

Collective agreement may provide for other circumstances under which there is a preference given for leaving workers employed. These circumstances are taken into account if the employees in accordance with the first and second parts of this article do not have a prior right to the abandonment of work.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Art. 109 LC states that the severance pay will be paid upon termination of the employment contract by the employer and it may not be less than the average monthly salary.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Art. 112 LC

However, when awarded a compensation consists of:
a compulsory payment during the period of forced absence ;
compensation for the additional costs associated with the appeal of the termination of the contract or transfer (expert advice, the cost of case management, etc.);
compensation of moral damages. The amount of compensation for moral damage is determined by the court with the assessment of the actions of the employer, but may not be less than the monthly salary of the employee. (Article 275 LC)

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 111 LC states that in cases of illegal termination of the contract or illegal transfer to another job the employee must be restored to the previous work by the employer, the court or other competent authority.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

Art. 260 LC states that Individual labour disputes are considered by the commissions for labour disputes, or by the district (city) courts.

Corte o Tribunal competente: jurisdicción ordinaria

Arbitraje: No