CDD regulados: No

Remarks

No regulation on the use of FTCs in the EA (reasons, duration, numbers). The only reference to FTCs is contained in art. 65 in relation to the definition of termination of employment. Art. 65(1)b) provides that termination shall be deemed to take place "where the contract of service, being a contract for a fixed term or tasks, ends with the expiry of the specified term of the completion of the specified task and is not renewed within a period of one week from the date of expiry on the same terms or terms not less favourable to the employee".

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

No provision in the legislation reviewed.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No provision in the legislation reviewed.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No provision in the legislation reviewed.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 12 meses

Remarks

Art. 67(2) EA: max. 6 months, which may however be extended for a further period of not more than 6 months with the agreement of the employee.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

If so requested by the employee, the reasons for termination may be indicated by the employer in the certificate of service which shall be delivered upon termination of the contract: art. 61 EA.

In addition, according to art. 66 EA, the employer must conduct a preliminary hearing with the employee and another person of his or her choice before reaching a decision to dismiss that employee on the grounds of misconduct or poor performance. During, this hearing, the employer shall explain to the employee the reasons for which he or she is considering dismissing him or her.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa

Remarks

See art. 73 EA.
A dismissal is unfair if
1) it was made for prohibited reasons (see prohibited grounds) or
2) it was not "just and equitable" for the employer to terminate the contract of the employee.
In assessing whether termination was just and equitable, the labour officer shall consider: i) the code of discipline, ii) the procedure followed by the employer in reaching the decision, iii) the conduct and capability of the employee, iv) compliance with the statutory procedural requirements, v) the previous practice of the employer in dealing with similar circumstances.

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, participación en una huelga legal, disfrute legal de licencias, estatus VIH

Remarks

Art. 75 EA sets out a list of grounds which shall not constitute fair reasons for dismissal or for the imposition of a disciplinary penalty.
On the organisation of and/or participation in a strike or other form of industrial action, see art. 76 EA.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

Limited protection consisting in mandatory prior consultation of the union branch before initiating disciplinary proceedings and penalties involving dismissal against an employee who is a union member: art. 1 Disciplinary rules, § (6) of the Disciplinary Code, schedule 1 of the EA.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 58(2) EA: written notice of termination.
In addition, according to art. 66 EA, the employer must conduct a preliminary hearing with the employee and another person of his or her choice before reaching a decision to dismiss that employee on the grounds of misconduct or poor performance. During, this hearing, the employer shall explain to the employee the reasons for which he or she is considering dismissing him or her.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 58(3) EA: Statutory minimum notice period are established according to the length of service, as follows:
- at least 2 weeks, for a period of service of more than 6 months but less than 1 year;
- at least 1 month, for a period of service of more than 12 months but less than 5 years;
- at least 2 months, for a period of service of more than 5 months but less than 10 years;
- at least 3 months, for a period of service of 10 years or more.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 3 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 58(5) EA.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

No general obligation to notify the worker's representatives. However, prior to any dismissal on the grounds of misconduct or poor performance, the employer must explain the reason for the planned dismissal to the employee, and the employee is entitled to have another person of his/her choice present during the explanation. Before reaching a decision on the dismissal, the employer must hear and consider any representation the employee and the person chosen by him/her, if any, may make (sec. 66(1) and (2) EA).

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): Termination of at least 10 employees over a period of not more than 3 months for reasons of an economic, technological, structural or similar nature.

Remarks

Art. 81(1) EA.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

The EA does not require the employer to consult with the worker's representatives. The employer is only required to inform them.
See art. 81(1)a) EA: An employer who intends to carry out collective terminations shall "provide the representatives of the labour union, if any, that represent the employees in the undertaking with relevant information, and in good time which shall be a period of at least four weeks before the first terminations shall take effect, except when the employer can show that it is not practicable to comply with such a time-limit [...]".

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 81(1) b): notification to the Commissioner (in the Ministry of Labor) in writing of the reasons for the terminations, the number and categories of workers concerned and the period over which the terminations are intended to be carried out.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

See art. 81(1)a) EA: obligation to provide the representatives of the labour union, if any, that represent the employees in the undertaking with relevant information, at least four weeks before the first terminations shall take effect.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Remarks

No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Remarks

No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Remarks

No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

The amount of severance pay is subject to negotiation between the employer and the workers or the trade union that represents them (art. 89 EA)

Severance pay is due in the following circumstances (art. 87 EA):
- unfair dismissal of the employee by the employer
- death of the employee at work not attributable to any misconduct of the employee
- termination by the employee due to physical incapacity not attributable to any misconduct of the employee
- termination by reason of the death or insolvency of the employer;
- termination by a labour officer following the inability or the refusal of the employer to pay wages
- other cases as provided by the Minister.

The law also lists circumstances where severance pay is not due (i.e summary dismissal) (art. 88 EA)

It seems that, in the event of ordinary fair dismissal (including collective dismissals for economic reasons), the dismissed employee is not entitled to severance pay.

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Art. 78 EA.

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Compensation for unfair dismissal includes a basic compensation of 4 weeks' wages + additional compensation at the discretion of the labour officer which shall not be less than one month's wages and more than 3 months' wages (= minimum 2 months' wages and maximum 4 months' wages in total)

Remarks

Art. 78 (1) EA.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Art. 71 (5) a) and (6) EA: in the event of unfair dismissal, the employee shall be reinstated or re-employed unless a) the employee does not wish to be reinstated, b) continuation of the employment relationship would be intolerable, c) it is not reasonable practical to do so, or d) the dismissal unfair only because the employer did not follow a proper procedure.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

Conciliation is foreseen in the legislation; it is however not compulsory.
According to art. 93(2) EA, a labour officer is competent to hear and to settle by conciliation or mediation a complaint concerning infringement of the provisions of the Act, or breach of obligations owed under the Act by either party to an employment contract.
In addition, art. 8 of the Labour Disputes (Arbitration and Settlement) Act (2006) provides that one of the ways available to the labour officer to deal with a complaint is "to meet with the parties and endeavour to conciliate and resolve the dispute".

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

- Pursuant to Art. 71(2) EA, a complaint of unfair termination shall be lodged to the labour officer within 3 months from the date of dismissal. The Labour officer is competent to order remedies for unfair dismissal (reinstatement or compensation)
According to art. 91 EA, appeals against the decisions of labour officer are heard by the Industrial Court.
- Disputes concerning unjustified summary dismissals are heard by the labour officer, as provided in art. 70 EA.
- In addition, any tort claim arising out of the employment relationship shall be brought before ordinary courts. (art. 93(6) EA)

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

No information found on separate alternative individual labour dispute resolution mechanisms. However, according to art. 93(2), the labour officer may settle by conciliation or mediation a complaint concerning infringement of the provisions of the Act, or breach of obligations owed under the Act by either party to an employment contract.

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

Complaints of unfair dismissals are only available to employees who have employed for at least 13 weeks before the date of the dismissal (art. 71 EA)