Obligación de motivar el despido:
Motivos autorizados (despido justificado):
conducta del trabajador, capacidad del trabajador, razones económicas
Articles 180 and 180a of Labour Code:
(1) The employer is bound to, prior to cancellation of an employment contract in the case under Article 179, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Act, warn the employee in writing of the existence of cause for cancelling the employment contract and to leave the worker a time period of not less than eight days from the day of serving of the warning to take a stand on the allegations stated in the warning.
(2)The employer is due to state in the warning, referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, the grounds for dismissal, the facts and evidence which suggest that the conditions for dismissal were met, and the time period for giving a response to the warning.
(3)The warning is served on the employee in the manner prescribed for serving of the decree on cancelling the employment contract referred to in paragraph 185 of this Act.
Employer may terminate the employment contract of the employee referred to in Article 179, paragraph 1, item 1) of this Act, or impose some of the measures under Article 179a, if the worker has previously given written notice regarding the deficiencies in the work performed, guidance and appropriate deadline to enhance work performance, and the employee does not enhance the work performance within the given deadline
Article 179 of Labour Code:
(1) An employer may cancel the employee’s employment contract for just cause which relates to employee’s work ability and his conduct, such as:
i) If the worker does not achieve the work results or does not have the necessary knowledge and skills to perform his duties;
ii) If the worker has been sentenced by a final judgment for a crime in the workplace or related to workplace;
ii) If the worker does not return to work for the employer within 15 days of the expiry of the time period of stay of employment under Article 79 of this Act, i.e. unpaid absence under Article 100 of this Act.
(2) The employer may cancel the employment contract of the employee who commits a breach of a work duty, as follows:
i) If the worker is negligent or reckless in performing the work duty;
ii) If the worker abuses his position or exceeds authority;
iii) If the worker unreasonably and irresponsibly uses means of work;
iv) If the worker does not use or uses inappropriately the allocated resources and equipment for personal protection at work;
v) If the worker commits other breach of work duty as determined by a bylaw or employment contract.
(3) The employer may cancel the employment contract of an employee who does not respect the work discipline, as follows: i) If the worker without just cause refuses to perform work duties and execute the orders of the employer in accordance with the law; (ii) If the worker does not submit a certificate of temporary impairment for work in terms of Article 103 of this Act; iii) If the worker abuses the right to a leave of absence due to temporary impairment for work; iv) If the worker comes to work under the influence of alcohol or other intoxicating substances, i.e. uses alcohol or other intoxicating substances during working hours, which has or may have an impact on the work performance; v) If the worker gave incorrect information that were critical for entering into employment relationship; vi) If the worker who works in jobs with higher risk, for which specific health fitness is a special requirement for work, refuses to undergo a health condition test; vii) If the worker does not respect work discipline prescribed by employer’s writ, or if a conduct is such that the worker cannot continue to work for the employer.
(5) Employee’s employment relationship may be terminated if there is a valid reason relating to the employer's needs, as follows: i) If as a result of technological, economic or organizational changes, the need to perform a specific job ceases, or there is a decrease in workload; ii) If the worker refuses to conclude the annex of the contract in terms of Article 171, paragraph 1, items 15) of this Act.
estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, responsabilidades familiares, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, orientación sexual, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, cumplimiento del servicio militar o civil, lengua, licencia paternal, estado de salud
Article 18 of Labour Law provides general grounds for protection against discrimination:
Direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment, as well as the employees, for reasons of sex, birth, language, race, color of skin, age, pregnancy, health condition, i.e. disability, ethnic origin, religion, marital status, family obligations, sexual orientation, political or other belief, social background, financial status, membership in political organizations, trade unions, or any other personal characteristic - is prohibited
Art. 183 of Labour Law provides specific regulations for protection against termination of employment contract in relation to discrimination:
The following shall not be considered as a justified reason for cancelling the employment contract in terms of Article 179 of the present Act: 1) Temporary impairment for work due to illness, accident at work or occupational disease; 2) Use of maternity leave, leave of absence for child care and absence from work due to special child care; 3) Full-term serving or completion of military service; 4) Membership in a political organization, trade union, sex, language, nationality, social background, religion, political or other conviction, or some other personal feature of the employee; 5) Activity as a representative of employees, in conformity with the present Act; 6) Seeking help from a trade union or agencies in charge of protection of employment-related rights, in conformity with the law, bylaw and employment contract.