CDD regulados: Si

Remarks

Rules on the use of FTCs are included in Articles 47 and 58-63 LC.

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

No list of specific reason for resorting to fixed-term contract. However, the use of FTC to fill in, on a lasting basis, positions connected with the normal and permanent activity of an undertaking is prohibited and such contracts would be deemed concluded for a indefinite period. (see art. 58 and 63 LC).

Art. 61 LC regulates FTCs concluded for an unspecified duration: these are permitted if they are concluded for the replacement of a temporarily absent worker, for the length of a season, for an occasional increase in workload or for work that does not form part of the customary activities of the enterprise.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2

Remarks

New in Sept. 2012: Under the former LC, art. 53 provided that FTCs (with a specified duration) could be renewed without any limitation provided that the total duration of the fixed-term employment relationship did not exceed the maximum duration of 2 years.
Art. 60 of the new LC does not refer to an unlimited number of renewals and seems to limit to two the maximum number of successive FTCs in providing that "fixed-term contract with a specified duration can be concluded for a maximum period of 2 years, renewable once".

Contracts of a limited duration but with an unspecified term (seasonal work, temporary replacement of a worker, temporary increase volume of work) can however be renewed without any limitation (art. 62 new LC,).

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 48meses

Remarks

New in Sept. 2012: Art. 60 of the new LC now provides for a maximum cumulative duration of 2 years, renewable once (= in total 48 months). Under the former LC (art. 53 LC), successive FTCs could not exceed 2 years.
However, the maximum cumulative duration does not apply to contracts concluded a limited but unspecified duration (seasonal work, temporary replacement of a worker, temporary increase volume of work). (art. 61 new LC).
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 55, now art. 61), but its content remains unchanged].

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Art. 52 of the Labour Code (LC):
The probationary period is optional. It must be established in writing and cannot be concluded or renewed for a period longer than the time required to test the worker's skills, given the technology and practice of the profession. The maximum duration of trial period and its renewal is set by collective agreements, or in their absence, by Ministerial orders.
The maximum probationary period for permanent contracts cannot exceed 6 months, including renewals. It is is extended to one year for workers hired outside of Niger.

For fixed-term contracts (FTCs): Article 60 LC provides that FTCs may include a probationary period (not mandatory). The duration of probationary periods for FTCs cannot exceed one month. Renewed FTCs cannot include any probation.

The 1972 Inter-occupational Collective Agreement in appendix No 1. establishes the duration of the probationary period according to the worker's category:
- 8 days for hourly, daily or weekly paid workers;
- 1 month for monthly paid workers;
- 1 to 3 months for first-line supervisors ("agent de maîtrise") and technicians;
- 3 months for engineers, and executives
- 6 months for senior executives.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Article 79 LC: When the employer contemplates a dismissal for reasons related to the employee's conduct or his/her ability/capacity, the employer must, before taking any decision, offer to the interested party to defend himself/herself. In case of dispute, the court assesses, on the basis of the circumstances, including the size of the enterprise, the extent to which the employer has fulfilled this obligation.

Dismissal on economic grounds: Need for substantiated written notification to the labour inspection (Article 84 LC).

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa

Remarks

Art. 78 new LC: valid reasons ("motifs légitimes") connected with the worker's conduct, capacity or operational requirements of the undertaking.

[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC (former art. 71, now art. 78), but its content has remained unchanged]

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, estatus VIH

Remarks

See Art. 5 LC: general prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of sex, age, national origin, race, religion, colour, political or religious opinion, social origin, disability, trade union membership or non-membership, with respect to hiring, training, wages... disciplinary sanctions and termination of employment.
New in Sept. 2012: New grounds were introduced in the 2012 LC: HIV-AIDS and sickle cell disease (drepanocytosis). In addition a new provision expressly provides that HIV-AIDS and sickle cell disease cannot, in any way, justify the dismissal of an affected worker (Art. 152 new LC).

Art. 78 LC lists unfair reasons for dismissal, namely:
- the above-mentioned prohibited grounds of discrimination (Art. 5 LC);
- seeking office as, or acting or having acted in the capacity of, a workers' representative;
- the filing of a complaint or the participation in proceedings against an employer involving alleged violation of laws or regulations or recourse to competent administrative authorities;
- marital status, pregnancy, temporary absence from work because of illness or injury.

Art. 111 LC: prohibition of dismissal during maternity leave.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

* Workers' representatives: Art. 227-228 new LC: prior authorization of the labour inspectorate required before any dismissal of a workers' representative.
New in Sept. 2012:
The LC introduced new provisions to further protect workers' representatives. Any dismissal of a workers' representative carried out without the prior consent of the labour inspector or despite the application for authorization being rejected /dismissed is null and void and will therefore entail reinstatement of the worker. Under the previous LC reinstatement was not available in such cases.
In addition, the new law establishes a time frame for the authorization procedure: 8 days for the labour inspector's decision after the filing of the application, extended to twenty one (21) days where expert evaluation is required.
Lastly, the labour inspector's decision can be appealed before the Minister of Labour and then further before an administrative tribunal.
Article 228 LC: Under certain conditions, this protection extends up to 6 months after the expiration of workers' representatives' mandate; the protection also applies to candidate workers' representatives (under certain conditions).
* Pregnant women and women on maternity leave: No prohibition of dismissal during pregnancy, but only during maternity leave (14 weeks, incl. 8 weeks after giving birth) under Article 111 LC.
Prohibition of dismissal during pregnancy is included under Article 78 LC (last point).

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

See Art. 84 LC (economic dismissals) and Art. 90 (2) LC (summary dismissal). No such specific requirement for any other dismissal in the LC (except as concerns workers' representatives, see above)
However, Art. 28 of the 1972 Inter-occupational Collective Agreement that specifically requires that notification be written.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

No specified duration in the LC (see art. 88 new LC).

However,the 1972 Inter-occupational Collective Agreement in appendix No 1. establishes the duration of the notice period according to the worker's category, as follows:
- 1 month for monthly paid workers;
- 8 days for hourly, daily or weekly paid workers;
- 1 month for first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise") and technicians;
- 3 months for engineers, executives and senior executives.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • trabajadores pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores con pago horario, diario o semanal: 0.27 meses.
  • capataces y técnicos: 1 meses.
  • ingenieros, ejecutivos y altos ejecutivos: 3 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 90 new LC
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC, but its content has remained unchanged]

Notificación a la administración: No

Remarks

Except in case of a dismissal of a workers' representative (art. 227 new LC) and an economic dismissal (art. 80 new LC)
[Note: the article numbers have changed in the new LC, but their content has remained unchanged]

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

Except in case of an economic dismissal (art. 80 new LC).
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC, but its content has remained unchanged]

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Remarks

Except in case of a dismissal of a workers' representative: art. 227 new LC.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC, but its content has remained unchanged]

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No definition of collective dismissal.
The LC regulates economic dismissals of one or more employees.

Remarks

Art. 80 new LC.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged]

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 80 to 83 new LC.
[Note: the article numbers have changed in the new LC but their content has remained unchanged.]

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Notification to the Labour Inspector: art. 80 and 84 new LC.
[Note: the article numbers have changed in the new LC but their content has remained unchanged.]

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 80 new LC.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged.]

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Remarks

However, approval is mandatory in the event of a dismissal of a workers' representative: art. 227 new LC.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged]

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Art. 81 new LC: professional skills, length of service and family responsibilities.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged]

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Remarks

However, art. 82 new LC gives the possibility to each participant in the consultation meeting to formulate proposals aiming at avoiding dismissals or mitigating their adverse effects.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: Si

Remarks

Art. 87 new LC: priority right to re-employment for 2 years.
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged.]

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

These procedural requirements apply any dismissal (individual or collective) based on economic grounds.

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

No provision in the LC. However, severance pay is governed by art. 34 of the Inter-occupational Collective Agreement:
A worker is entitled to severance pay provided he has been employed continuously for a period of at least one year and he has not committed any serious misconduct. Severance pay corresponds to a percentage of the monthly overall wages per year of service and is set according to the length of service as follows:
*20% per year during the first 5 years
*30% per year from the 6th to the 10th year
*35% per year after the tenth year.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.8 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 6 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Severance pay + specific additional payment of 1 month's gross wages for individual and collective dismissals on economic grounds (art. 86 new LC).
[Note: the article number has changed in the new LC but its content has remained unchanged.]

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1.2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1.4 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1.8 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 7 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 91Paragraph2 and 92 LC: The amount of damages for unfair dismissal is fixed by the Court, in light of any circumstances establishing the existence and the extent of the harm incurred, including the local custom, the type and importance of the services rendered, the employee's seniority and age, any deductions or payments made to a retirement plan, and other established right.
[Note: the article numbers have changed in the new LC but their content has remained unchanged.]

Posibilidad de readmisión: No

Remarks

The LC does not contain any provision on reinstatement and only provides for the payment of damages in the event of unfair dismissal (art. 91Paragraph2 LC).
In practise, reinstatement seems to be ordered by the labour courts. See, for example the Direct Request made ILO Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (CEACR) in 2011 [link available under scope of additional information] :
"The Government indicates that the labour tribunal has the power to declare the termination invalid and to propose reinstatement should it identify any irregularity in the grounds and procedure for termination. The Government also indicates that, if the employer rejects the request for reinstatement, it is required by law to pay the worker compensation"

New in Sept. 2012:
Under the new LC, any dismissal of a workers' representative carried out without the prior consent of the labour inspector or despite the application for authorization being rejected /dismissed is null and void and will therefore entail reinstatement of the worker. Under the previous LC, reinstatement was not available in such cases.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

Art 305 new LC: conciliation shall be part of the procedure before the labour court.

In addition, before starting any judicial proceedings, the parties can resort to extra-judicial conciliation before the Labour Inspectorate (art. 317 new LC).

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 289 new LC.

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

In the LC, arbitration is only foreseen for the resolution of collective labour disputes.