CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

FTC: sec. 10 (1) EA and 11(1) EA.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Remarks

No statutory limitation found in the legislation reviewed.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses):

Remarks

No reference to the duration of the probationary period in the legislation.
On probationary employees, see case law: KC Matthews v. Guthries (1981) 2 MLJ 320; Express Newspaper Ltd. V. Labour Court & Anor (1964) AIR SC 806.

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

No statutory obligation.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): ninguno

Remarks

Sec. 12 (1) EA: termination by either party at any time provided that the notice requirements are observed: no ground for dismissals required in the laws reviewed. This does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds.

The EA authorizes termination without notice in the following cases:
Sec. 13 (2) EA: termination by either party without notice in the event of any wilful breach of contract.
Sec. 14 (1) EA: summary dismissal on the grounds of misconduct.
Sec. 15 (2) EA: termination of the contract of an employee who has been continuously absent from work without reasonable excuse.

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, licencia de maternidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales

Remarks

* Trade union activities: sec 5 (1) (d) and 59 (1) IRA.
* Maternity leave and pregnancy: dismissing an employee during maternity leave constitutes an offence : sec. 40 (3) EA.
Consitutes also an offence the dismissal of a female employee who remains absent from work after the expiration of the protection period as a result of illness arising out of her pregnancy or confinement (sec. 42 (1) EA).

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, nacionales

Remarks

Maternity leave: dismissing an employee during maternity leave constitutes an offence : sec. 40 (3) EA.
Constitutes also an offence the dismissal of a female employee who remains absent from work after the expiration of the protection period as a result of illness arising out of her pregnancy or confinement (sec. 42 (1) EA).

In addition, sec. 60N EA provides specific protection to local employees in case of collective dismissal as it stipulates that no employer can retrench a local employee unless it has first terminated the services of a foreign employee employed in a similar capacity.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Sec. 12 (4) EA.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Sec. 12 (2) EA lays down statutory minimum notice periods applicable to all dismissals, including those for operational reasons, but except dismissals for misconduct, as follows:
- 4 weeks for employees with less than 2 years of service;
- 6 weeks for employees with 2 to 5 years of service;
- 8 weeks for employees with more than 5 years of service.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Sec. 13 (1) EA.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No provision on the number of employees concerned.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

No statutory provisions.

However, see the "Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975", Paragraph 20 to 24 on Redundancy and retrenchment.
The CCIH is an Agreement between the Ministry of Human Resources and the main social partners. The aim of the Code is "to lay down principles and guidelines to employers and workers on the practice of industrial relations for achieving greater industrial harmony".
Although it is not a binding instrument, it is however taken into consideration by the Industrial Court in retrenchment cases.

Paragraph 20-21 reads as follows:
"(20) In circumstances where redundancy is likely an employer should, in consultation with his employees' representatives or their trade union, as appropriate, and in consultation with the Ministry of Labour and Manpower, take positive steps to avert or minimise reductions of workforce by the adoption of appropriate measures such as:
(a) Limitation on recruitment
(b) Restriction of overtime work
(c) Restriction of work on weekly day of rest
(d) Reduction in number of shifts or days worked a week
(e) Reduction in the number of hours of work
(f) Re-training and/or transfer to other department/work.
(21) The ultimate responsibility for deciding on the size of the workforce must rest with the employer, but before any decision on reduction is taken, there should be consultation with the workers or their trade union representatives on the reduction.".

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

No provision in the EA. However, pursuant to Employment (Retrenchment) Notification 2004 [PU(B) 430], the employer must inform the Labour Department via the PK Forms one month before the retrenchment.

However, see the "Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975", Paragraph 20-21 (not binding):
"(20) In circumstances where redundancy is likely an employer should, in consultation with his employees' representatives or their trade union, as appropriate, and in consultation with the Ministry of Labour and Manpower, take positive steps to avert or minimise reductions of workforce by the adoption of appropriate measures such as:
(a) Limitation on recruitment
(b) Restriction of overtime work
(c) Restriction of work on weekly day of rest
(d) Reduction in number of shifts or days worked a week
(e) Reduction in the number of hours of work
(f) Re-training and/or transfer to other department/work.
(21) The ultimate responsibility for deciding on the size of the workforce must rest with the employer, but before any decision on reduction is taken, there should be consultation with the
workers or their trade union representatives on the reduction."

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

No statutory provisions.

However, see the "Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975", Paragraph 20-21 (not binding):
"(20)In circumstances where redundancy is likely an employer should, in consultation with his employees' representatives or their trade union, as appropriate, and in consultation with the Ministry of Labour and Manpower, take positive steps to avert or minimise reductions of workforce by the adoption of appropriate measures such as:
(a) Limitation on recruitment
(b) Restriction of overtime work
(c) Restriction of work on weekly day of rest
(d) Reduction in number of shifts or days worked a week
(e) Reduction in the number of hours of work
(f) Re-training and/or transfer to other department/work.
(21) The ultimate responsibility for deciding on the size of the workforce must rest with the employer, but before any decision on reduction is taken, there should be consultation with the
workers or their trade union representatives on the reduction."

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

The courts have required employers to operate the "last on, first off" principle when retrenching employees, unless there are sound and valid reasons for departing from this principle (see i.e: East Asiatic v. Ong Wai Beng, Award 24/87).

In addition the Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975, provides in Paragraph 22 b) that:
"(b) The employer should select employees to be retrenched in accordance with objective criteria.
Such criteria, which should have been worked out in advance with the employees' representatives or trade union may include:
(i) The need for the efficient operation of the establishment or undertaking
(ii) Ability, experience, skill and occupational qualifications of individual workers required by the establishment or undertaking under part (i)
(iii) Consideration for length of service and status (non-citizens, casual, temporary, permanent)
(iv) Age
(v) Family situation
(vi) Such other criteria as may be formulated in the context of national policies"
See also art. 60N of the Employment Act: "Where an employer is required to reduce his workforce by reason of redundancy necessitating the retrenchment of any number of employees, the employer shall not terminate the services of a local employee unless he has first terminated the services of all foreign employees employed by him in a capacity similar to that of the local employee".

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Remarks

No statutory provisions.

However, see the "Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975", Paragraph 20-21 (not binding):
"(20) In circumstances where redundancy is likely an employer should, in consultation with his employees' representatives or their trade union, as appropriate, and in consultation with the Ministry of Labour and Manpower, take positive steps to avert or minimise reductions of workforce by the adoption of appropriate measures such as:
(a) Limitation on recruitment
(b) Restriction of overtime work
(c) Restriction of work on weekly day of rest
(d) Reduction in number of shifts or days worked a week
(e) Reduction in the number of hours of work
(f) Re-training and/or transfer to other department/work.
(21) The ultimate responsibility for deciding on the size of the workforce must rest with the employer, but before any decision on reduction is taken, there should be consultation with the
workers or their trade union representatives on the reduction.
(22) (a) If retrenchment becomes necessary, despite having taken appropriate measures, the employer should take the following measures:
(i) Giving as early a warning, as practicable, to the workers concerned
(ii) Introducing schemes for voluntary retrenchment and retirement and for payment of redundancy and retirement benefits
(iii) Retiring workers who are beyond their normal retiring age
(iv) Assisting, in co-operation with the Ministry of Human Resources, the workers to find work outside the undertaking
(v) Spreading termination of employment over a longer period
(vi) Ensuring that no such announcement is made before the workers and their representatives or trade union has been informed"

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Remarks

No statutory provisions.
However, see the Code of Conduct for Industrial Harmony [CCIH], 1975, Paragraph 23 (not binding):
"(23) Employees, who are retrenched, should be given priority of engagement/re-engagement, as far as is possible, by the employer when he engages workers".

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

The Employment (Termination and Lay-off Benefits) Regulations 1980 provides for statutory severance pay in the event of termination, on the following scale (sec. 6 (1)):
- ten days' wages for each completed year of service of less than two years;
- 15 days' wages for each year of two to five years' service;
- 20 days' wages for each year of service exceeding five years.

These Regulations apply to employees with more than one year's service (sec. 3(1)) and do not apply to dismissals for misconduct, after due inquiry (sec. 4).

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 6.7 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 13.3 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Same as severance pay: see sec. 6(1) of the Employment (Termination and Lay-off Benefits) Regulations 1980.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 6.7 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 13.3 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

The IRA does not expressly refer to legal limits (see provisions on the court's award: sec. 20 (2) and (3) and 30 IRA).

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

See sec. 20 1) and 33 b) IRA.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

The employee who considers to have been dismissed without "just cause or excuse" first has to make representations to the Industrial Relations Department for reinstatement. If no settlement, including by conciliation, is possible, the Department will report the matter to the Minister, who may refer the matter to the Industrial Court (sec. 20 IRA)

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

The judicial body competent to hear cases of unfair dismissal is the industrial court (sec. 20 (3) and 30 IRA)
The employee who considers to have been dismissed without "just cause or excuse" first has to make representations to the Industrial Relations Department for reinstatement. If no settlement, including by conciliation, is possible, the Department will report the matter to the Minister, who may refer the matter to the Industrial Court (sec. 20 IRA)

Alternatively, an employee can bring a civil action for damages in respect of wrongful dismissal before the civil courts. However, a decision issued by the Industrial Court on unfair dismissal shall operate as a bar to any action for damages by the employee in any court in respect of wrongful dismissal.(sec. 20 (4) IRA).

Arbitraje: No

Duración del procedimiento: 30du00eda(s) (statutory)

Remarks

Sec. 30 (3) IRA: with respect to unfair dismissal, the court shall make its award without delay and where practicable within 30 days from the day the case was referred to it.