CDD regulados: Si

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

The LC does not require any specific reason for resorting to a FTC for the first time (sec. 192 LC).

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

In the previous Labour Code sec. 79 (4) provided that a contract renewed without a valid reason ("rightful interest") on the part of the employer and aimed at compromising the interest of the employee shall be deemed established for an indefinite duration. This provision has been repealed in the new Labour Code.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 60meses

Remarks

Sec. 192 (2) LC
In the previous Labour Code the 60 months restriction did not apply to executive employees (sec. 190 (1) of the former LC), the new Labour Code does not contain such provision any longer.

% de trabajadores bajo CDD: 9.7

Remarks

Source: Eurostat, for the year 2013.
The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
"A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 3 meses

Remarks

Pursuant to sec. 45.5 LC, the trial period may not exceed 3 months. In comparison to the regulation in the previous Labour Code which provided for a trial period of 30 days at least with the possibility of extension for up to 3 months if so stipulated in a collective agreement or agreed upon by the parties, the new Labour Code has increased the period of probation for up to 3 months in all cases.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

Sec. 66(1) LC (in the former LC sec. 89 (2) LC).

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador, razones económicas, capacidad del trabajador

Remarks

Sec. 66(2) LC (in connection with his/her ability, his/her behavior in relation to the employment relationship or with the employer's operations), (in the former LC sec. 89(3)).

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, raza, color, sexo, orientación sexual, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, cumplimiento del servicio militar o civil, lengua, licencia paternal, estado de salud, origen étnico

Remarks

- Race, colour, sex, etc. are listed as prohibited grounds for discrimination including in the context of termination of employment in the Equal Treatment Act (No. 125 of 2003). (Sec. 8 and 21 c) ETA).
- In addition, pregnancy, parental leave; a leave of absence taken without pay for caring for a child (Sections 66(3), 128 and 130 LC).
-Sec. 271(2) provides that no employee shall be dismissed on a ground of being a member of any trade union.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con responsabilidades familiares, trabajadores que desempeñan servicio militar/servicio alternativo

Remarks

* Prior consent of the higher ranking trade union body is requested in case of dismissal of an elected trade union representatives: sec. 273(1) LC (in former LC sec. 28 (1)).
* The LC provides for protected periods during which ordinary dismissal can not take place: pregnancy, parental leave.: sec. 65 3 LC (in former LC sec. 90 (1)).

New in 2012
Section 89(7) of the previous Labour Code provided that workers who are between 57 and less than 62 years old, can only be dismissed in "particularly justified cases", unless they are already entitled to pension benefits. However, new Labour Code does not contain such provision.

Contrary to the previous regulation, the new Labour Code allows for dismissal of an employee during the period of sick leave. Sec. 66(7) LC now states: The employer may terminate by notice the employment relationship of a worker who is receiving rehabilitation treatment or rehabilitation benefits due to the worker's capacity related to medical reasons if the worker can no longer be employed in his/her original position and no other job is available that is considered appropriate for his/her medical condition, or if the employee refuses to accept a job offered by the employer without good reason.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Sec. 66 LC (in former LC sec. 89)

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Sec 68 LC (in former LC sec.92 LC)provides for a minimum notice period of 30 days, which may be extended by:
* 5 days after 3 years of service;
* 15 days after 5 years of service;
* 20 days after 8 years of service;
* 25 days after 10 years of service;
* 30 days after 15 years of service;
* 40 days after 18 years of service;
* 60 days after 20 years of service.
New in 2012
The new Labour Code does not provide any more for maximum notice period of one year. Also, the new LC states that by the agreement of the parties notice periods of 5 days after 3 years of service and 15 days after 5 years of service, can be extended up to 6 months (Sec. 69(3) LC).

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1.17 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1.83 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 3 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: No

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

However, in case of dismissal of an elected trade union representatives, prior consent of the higher ranking trade union body is requested: 273(1) LC (in former LC sec. 28 (1)).

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

However, in case of dismissal of an elected trade union representatives, prior consent of the higher ranking trade union body is requested: 273(1) LC (in former LC sec. 28 (1)).

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): At least:
1) 10 employees in undertakings with 20 to 99 employees;
2) 10 % of the employees in undertakings with 100 to 299 employees;
3) 30 employees in undertakings with at least 300 employees within 30 days.

Remarks

Sec. 71 LC (in former LC sec 94/A (1))

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Sec. 72(1) (in former LC sec. 94/B LC)

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Sec. 72(5) LC and sec. 74 LC (in former LC Sec. 94/D LC)

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Sec. 72(1) (in former LC sec. 94/B LC)

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Remarks

No criteria listed. Selection criteria are mentioned in sec. 72(2) (in former LC sec. 94/B (1) b)) as one of the elements to be communicated to the worker's representatives during the consultation process.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

Art. 94/B (5) LC: elements to be considered in the course of the consultation process.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Sec. 77 (in the former LC sec. 95 LC) .
Severance pay - following a dismissal (including on economic grounds) or the dissolution of the employer - varies according to the length of service, as follows:
* 1 month's pay for at least 3 years of service;
* 2 months' pay for at least 5 years of service;
* 3 months' pay for at least 10 years of service;
* 4 months' pay for at least 15 years of service;
* 5 months' pay for at least 20 years of service;;
* 6 months' pay for at least 25 years.
New in 2012
The previous Labour Code contained the provision which stated that while workers who qualify as pensioner (62 year old) are not entitled to severance pay, workers between 57 and less than 62 are entitled to the above mentioned amount increased by 3 months' wages. This has been removed in the new Labour Code.
Also, the new Labour Code has removed entitlement to severance pay for an employee who has been dismissed in connection with his/her behavior in relation to the employment relationship or on grounds other than health reasons.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

No specific redundancy payment. Severance pay covers any dismissal for economic reasons (sec. 77 LC (in the former LC sec. 95).

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 5 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Sections 82 and 83 LC (in the former LC sec. 100 (4) LC)

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Compensation (in lieu of reinstatement): max. 12 months' pay

Remarks

Sec. 82 (2) (in former LC sec. 100 (4) and sec. (6) LC)
New in 2012
Previous Labour Code provided for a minimum 3 months' pay of compensation, while the Labour Code does not contain a minimum limit.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Sec. 83 (in former LC sec. 100 LC)

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

However, the parties can resort to extra-judicial conciliation provided it is so stipulated in a collective agreement (sec. 199/A LC).

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Labour Courts have jurisdiction in the first instance over disputes arising from the employment relationship. Appeals are heard by regular courts. (Sec. 16 of Act LXVI of 1997 on the organisation and administration of courts)

(http://ec.europa.eu/civiljustice/jurisdiction_courts/jurisdiction_courts_hun_en.htm)

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

No statutory provision nor information found.