CDD regulados: Si

Remarks

Art. 23 LC as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010.

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

Art. 23 LC as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 2

Remarks

Art. 23 LC as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010.
Fixed-term contract can only be renewed once
New in 2010: The former exception to this rules regarding "fixed-term contract of a short duration" which could be renewed more than once, provided the cumulative duration did not exceed 2 years, has been removed from article 23.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 48meses

Remarks

Maximum duration of a FTC: 24 months renewable once (Art. 23 LC as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010).

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Art 30 LC establishes a maximum statutory probation period that varies according to the category of worker, as follows:
* 6 months for executive staff
* 3 months for white collars, technicians and supervisors
* 1 month for the other workers.

Obligación de motivar el despido: Si

Remarks

- Dismissal based on personal reasons: art. 51 LC, as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010.
- Economic dismissal (consultation procedure): art. 59 LC.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): cualquiera justa causa

Remarks

Art. 50 LC.

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, licencia de maternidad, presentación de una queja contra el empleador, raza, color, sexo, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales

Remarks

Art. 8 LC on non-discrimination.
Art. 74 LC on unfair dismissals.
Art. 170 LC on pregnant women.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

Art. 295 and 170 LC.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 51 LC, as amended in 2010 by Order No. 018/PR/2010: written notification to attend an oral interview.
Art. 53 LC: dismissal letter.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

According to art. 65 LC, the statutory minimum notice period varies according to the length of service, as follows:
- up to 1 year of service: 15 days;
- from 1 to 3 years of service: 1 month;
- from 3 to 5 years of service: 2 months;
- from 5 to 10 years of service: 3 months;
- from 10 to 15 years of service: 4 months;
- from 15 to 20 years of service: 5 months;
- from 20 to 30 years of service: 6 months.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 2 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 3 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 4 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 6 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 69 LC.

Notificación a la administración: No

Remarks

Except for any:
* individual dismissal based on economic grounds: art. 56 LC;
* dismissal of a pregnant woman and women on maternity leave: art. 170 LC;
* dismissal of a workers' representative: art. 295 LC.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

However, such notification is mandatory in case of any individual dismissal based on economic grounds: art. 59 LC.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Remarks

However, approval by the administration is required for any:
* individual dismissal based on economic grounds: art. 56 LC;
* dismissal of a pregnant woman and women on maternity leave: art. 170 LC;
* dismissal of a workers' representative: art. 295 LC.

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No statutory definition of collective dismissal.
However, the Labour Code provides for a definition of economic grounds and refers to more than 1 employee

Remarks

Art. 50 LC: definition of economic reasons.
Art 56 LC: any individual or collective dismissal for economic reasons.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 59 LC.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 56 LC.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 59 LC.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: Si

Remarks

Art. 56 and 57 LC.
Approval by the Labour Inspector is required for any individual or collective dismissal on economic grounds.

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Art. 59 LC.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

Art. 59 LC.
In addition, art. 59 provides for a social plan for dismissed workers to be established in collaboration with the National Employment Office. However, the adoption of a social plan is only mandatory in case of a dismissal affecting at least 10 employees.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: Si

Remarks

Art. 60 LC: preferential right to re-employment for 1 year.

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

The procedures established by the LC apply to both individual and collective dismissals based on economic grounds (except for the social plan that is only mandatory when the dismissal affects at least 10 employees).

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Arts. 70 and 73 LC:
A worker is entitled to severance pay provided he has been employed for at least two years and he has not committed any serious misconduct.
Severance pay corresponds, as a minimum, to 20 % of the monthly overall wages per year of service.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.8 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 4 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

See Art. 70 and 73 LC.
Severance pay covers economic dismissals. The only difference lies in the years of service required to be entitled to severance pay
If a worker is dismissed for economic reasons, he or she will receive severance pay provided he has been employed for at least 1 year and he has not committed any serious misconduct. [2 years of service is required for dismissals based on other reasons]. Severance pay corresponds, as a minimum, to 20 % of the monthly overall wages per year of service.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0.4 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0.8 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 4 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 75 LC (unfair dismissal).

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Unfair dismissal: free determination by the Court.

Remarks

Art. 75 LC and 55 LC.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Only for workers' representatives: art. 295 LC. Reinstatement is not available to workers not falling within this category.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: Si

Remarks

Art. 315 LC: Extra-judicial conciliation shall take place before the Labour Inspector before the claim is brought to the court.
Art. 333 LC: preliminary mandatory conciliation is part of the procedure before the Labour Court.

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 318 LC.

Arbitraje: No