CDD regulados: Si

Remarks

Articles 26 of Labour Code provides that the fixed-term employment contract can only be agreed when the nature of the work merits it. In the same way, this type of contract can be carried out before occasional and extraordinary work. On the contrary, it cannot be agreed when the work is of a permanent nature.

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: razones materiales y objetivas

Remarks

See Article 26 above.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Remarks

Arts. 26 and 27 Labour Code: The fixed-term or fixed-term contract must be stipulated for a period not exceeding one year. For the determination of said time, the extensions made to the employment contract must be taken into consideration. If special technical preparation is necessary to carry out the work, the employment contract can be extended for up to five years.
However, if the nature and cause of the work remain at the end of the employment contract for a certain period of time and the hiring is not renewed, it will be interpreted for the benefit of the worker as an employment contract for an indeterminate period and the payment of the corresponding workers' compensation will proceed. The foregoing would proceed even if the year of seniority is not exceeded.

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 12meses

Remarks

Arts. 26 and 27 Labour Code: The fixed-term or fixed-term contract must be stipulated for a period not exceeding one year. For the determination of said time, the extensions made to the employment contract must be taken into consideration. If special technical preparation is necessary to carry out the work, the employment contract can be extended for up to five years.

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses):

Remarks

The trial period is not regulated by the legal system. However, the trial period is often confused with the initial term of three months in the contracts for an indefinite period, in which it is possible to terminate the employment relationship, without the employer having to pay the notice and severance pay, accoridng to article 28 (a) of the Labour Code.

Excluded from protection against dismissal:

Remarks

Articles 28 and 29 provide rules for prior notice and severance pay in case of termination of employment contract after 3 months. However, there is no information in the law in relation to shorter periods.

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

Article 35 provides that it is only mandatory to provide written declaration of reasons for dismissal if requested by the worker.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): ninguno

Remarks

Private employment relationships are governed by free dismissal, therefore, the employer can dismiss a worker without just cause, but with the payment of the corresponding workers' compensation (article 85 (d) of the Labour Code).
On the other hand, the Labour Code also has a list of grounds that merit the application of disciplinary dismissal (Article 81 and 369 of Labour Code), in which case no severance or redundancy payment should be paid.
A dismissal is also possible for health reasons arising from a work risk, when the worker's relocation is not possible (article 254 Labour Code), with the payment of the corresponding workers' compensation.

Motivos prohibidos: embarazo, licencia de maternidad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, denuncia/ alerta

Remarks

Articles 94 and 94 of Labour Code provides that is forbidden to dismiss pregnant workers or workers who are breastfeeding, as well as indicate that in case os unlawful dismissal the worker can request reinstatement before the courts. Article 367 of Labour Code provides stability to trade union members. and workers representatives.
Moreover, persons reporting sexual harassment are protected by the Law against Sexual Harassment in Employment and Teaching.

Preliminarily, the principle of non-discrimination was regulated by Law No. 2694 of November 22, 1960, which establishes that all types of discrimination in employment are prohibited, which refers to race, sex, age, religion, color, marital status , political opinion, national ancestry, social origin, affiliation or economic situation. In addition, the art. 33 of the Political Constitution generally establishes the principle of equality and the principle of non-discrimination. Specifically, article 57 regulates equal pay and article 68 prohibits discrimination at work.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

See article 94 of Labour Code.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: sin forma particular exigida

Remarks

Although the law does not provide a statutory form of communication of the termination, article 35 provides that, if requested by the worker, a written declaration shall be provided, containing information related to the duration of the contract, type of work, performance and reasons for termination.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

According to article 28 of Labour Code, in case of dismissals without valids grounds in open-end contracts, the worker should be given a prior notice, if the employment contract lasts at least 3 months.
On the other hand, the employer is not obliged to provide prior notice in case the dismissal is due to a serious fault attributable to the worker. The employer is also not obligated to provide prior notice when in fixed term contracts, unless the contract is being terminated before the term or the conclusion of the work, provided that the period of one year has not been exceeded.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Article 28 of Labour Code provides that in case the prior notice cannot be given in working days, it will be compensated with respective salary.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

There is no legal norm, but it can be regulated by collective bargaining agreement

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): The legal system does not contemplate a regulation or a definition for dismissal for collective reasons, nor applicable limitations for the execution of collective dismissals.
Although the article 369 of Labour Code provides authorization to lawfully dismiss employees that engage in collective actions that result in illicit acts, there is no particular provision in relation to the termination act itself.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

There is no legal norm, but it can be regulated by collective bargaining agreement.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

There is no legal norm, but it can be regulated by collective bargaining agreement.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

There is no legal norm, but it can be regulated by collective bargaining agreement.

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Article 29 of Labour Code provides that if the employment contract for an undetermined time ends due to unjustified dismissal, or some of the causes provided for in article 83 or other beyond the worker's will, the employer must pay severance payment in accordance with the following rules :
1. After continuous work of not less than three months nor more than six, an amount equal to seven days of salary.
2. After continuous work of more than six months but less than one year, an amount equal to fourteen days of salary.
3. After continuous work of more than one year, with the amount of days of salary indicated in the following table:
a) 1 year: 19.5 days per year worked; b) 2 years: 20 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; c) 3 years: 20.5 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; d) 4 years: 21 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; e) 5 years: 21.24 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; f) 6 years: 21.5 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; g) 7 years: 22 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; h) 8 years: 22 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; i) 9 years: 22 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; j) 10 years: 21.5 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; k) 11 years: 21 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; l) 12 years 20.5 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months; m) 13 years and following: 20 days per year worked or fraction exceeding six months.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.7 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2.8 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 3.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 7.2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 13.3 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

If the dismissal occurs without a cause in fixed-term contracts before the final term, the worker must be compensated with fixed compensation and compensation for damages (art. 31 Labour Code).
Despite the above, if the contract has been stipulated for six months or more; or longer if the execution of the work demands, by its nature or importance, should last this period or a longer one, the referred additional compensation can never be less than twenty-two days of salary.
Severance payment is due to all cases of dismissals by employer´s initiative, with the exception of dismissals due to just cause concerning the situations provided by articles 81 and 369 of Labour Code.

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

Art. 82 Labour Code provides that ff the employer dismisses the worker for just cause to the latter and subsequently in case of a judicial contingency, the employer does not prove the cause that founded the worker's disciplinary dismissal, the worker shall have the right to be paid the amount of the prior notice and the unemployment assistance that may correspond, and, as damages, wages that he would have received from the termination of the contract until the date in which, in accordance with the legal terms to process and resolve, the conviction against the employer should have been final.

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?: Si

Remarks

See article 82 of Labour Code. The court might defined compensation for damages, in addition to the correspondent severance pay and prior notice.

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo):

Remarks

See Article 82 of Labour Code and rules for severance pay.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

The reinstatement of the worker proceeds only when requested at the judicial level and when it is demonstrated that the worker has been unjustifiably dismissed for discriminatory reasons or in cases in which the worker has a special protection against dismissal, the employer did not process and did not obtain the corresponding judicial or administrative authorization prior to the application of the disciplinary dismissal.
Additionally, the worker may request that the employer be ordered to pay wages as long as he is not reinstated in his job.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Article 392 of Labour Code

Arbitraje: No

Carga de la prueba: ambos

Remarks

Article 317 of Civil Procedure Code.