Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): conducta del trabajador

Remarks

Art. 16 of the Labour Code sets out the following causes for the termination of employment and in these cases there is no entitlement to severance pay or compensation:
a) Cause intentional material damage to work instruments.
b) Revelation of industrial secrets.
c) Imprudence or omission to industrial security or hygiene.
d) Larceny or robbery committed by the employee.
e) Partial or complete breach of agreement.

(*translation from the document LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT DESK BOOK BOLIVIA C.R. & F. Rojas - Abogados)

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, color, sexo, orientación sexual, religión, opinion política, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, lengua, nacimiento, origen étnico

Remarks

Art. 14 of the Bolivian Constitution
Regarding the trade union membership and activities, only the leaders of workers' organization are protected and they can not be dismissed without the prior authorization of a Labour Court. (Art. 2 of the Legislative Decree No. 37 of 7 February 1944)

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad, trabajadores con discapacidad

Remarks

Art. 14 of the Constitution of Bolivia (general provisions on non discrimination)
Regarding the trade union membership and activities, only the leaders of workers' organization are protected and they can not be dismissed without the prior authorization of a Labour Court. (Art. 2 of the Legislative Decree No. 37 of 7 February 1944)

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: sin forma particular exigida

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

Art. 12 of the LC provides for the following notice periods:

1. Labour contract with workers (”obreros"):
a.) 1 week of advance notice for contracts longer than one month;
b.) 15 days of advance notice for contracts longer than six months;
c.) 30 days of advance notice period for contracts longer than one year.

2. Labour contracts with employees ("empleados") require a notice period of 90 days if the contract has been consecutively longer than 3 months.

Note: the difference between “worker” and “employee” can be found in Article 2 of the Labour Code; the difference is based on the nature of the tasks for which they are contracted.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 0.25 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 0.5 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 1 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • trabajadores permanentes: 3 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales: 1 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 12 of the Labour Code

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

When the worker retires against his/hers own will the employer is obliged to pay compensation corresponding to one months' salary for each year of service. If the service was less than one year, payment is made proportionally to the months worked, deducting the first three months of the probationary period, except in the case of fixed term contract, from which no deduction is made. (Art. 13 of the Labour Code)

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 4 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 10 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 20 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0.1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0.3 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 2.5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 10 meses

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?: Si

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Article 13 of Labour Code provides that when the worker is dismissed by the employer for unfair reasons, the employer shall be obliged, regardless of the eviction, to compensate the worker for the time of service, with the sum equivalent to one month's salary or salary for each year of continuous work; and if the services do not reach one year, proportionally to the months worked; it will be computed from the date in which they were hired, verbally or in writing, including the months that are considered proof. Only the period corresponding to the initial period of the first three months is deemed to be a trial period, but not to subsequent periods resulting from renewal or extension. If the worker had more than 8 years of service, the compensation to be paid will be in qual amount of the one to be paid in case of voluntary dismissal.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Articles 10 and 11 of Supreme Decree No. 28699 provides for the possibility for employees to choose between reinstatement or compensation in case of unfair dismissal.
If the employee opts for reinstatement, he/she can request the Labour Authority to issue a reinstatement order, provided that the dismissal is proved to be unjustified.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

Only for collective labour disputes

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Article 6 of Labour Code Procedure provides that the special jurisdiction of labour and social security is exercised permanently:

a) By the Labour and Social Security Courts, as first instance courts;
b) By the National Labour and Social Security Court, as the Court of Appeal; and
c) By the Supreme Court of Justice in its Social and Administrative Chamber, as Court of Cassation.

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

Only in the case of collective labour dispute

Carga de la prueba: empleador

Remarks

Article 3 (h) Code of Labour Procedure.