CDD regulados: No

Remarks

The LA does not regulate the use of fixed-term contracts but it distinguishes between apprentices, badlis, casual workers, probationers, permanent and temporary workers
A badli (= transfer worker) is a worker who is employed during the absence of a permanent worker or of a probationer worker.
A casual worker is a worker employed on ad-hoc basis in an establishment for work of a casual nature.
A temporary worker is a worker who is employed to perform work which is essentially of temporary nature, and is likely to be finished within a limited period.
A probationer is a worker who is provisionally employed in an establishment to fill a permanent vacancy in a post and has not completed the period of his probation in the establishment.
A permanent worker is a worker employed in an establishment on a permanent basis or who has satisfactory completed the period of his probation in the establishment (sec. 4 LA).

Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin restricción

Remarks

The LA does not regulate the use of fixed-term contracts but instead distinguishes between apprentices, badlis, casual workers, probationers, permanent and temporary workers
A badli (= transfer worker) is a worker who is employed during the absence of a permanent worker or of a probationer worker.
A casual worker is a worker employed on ad-hoc basis in an establishment for work of a casual nature.
A temporary worker is a worker who is employed to perform work which is essentially of temporary nature, and is likely to be finished within a limited period.
A probationer is a worker who is provisionally employed in an establishment to fill a permanent vacancy in a post and has not completed the period of his probation in the establishment.
A permanent worker is a worker employed in an establishment on a permanent basis or who has satisfactory completed the period of his probation in the establishment (sec. 4 LA).
[From the above-mentioned definition, we can infer that reasons connected to the temporary nature of the work shall be present in order to hire a badli or a temporary worker and therefore such workers cannot be hired to perform work of a permanent nature].

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: sin restricción

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: sin limitación

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 6 meses

Remarks

Sec. 4(8) LA: The probationary period shall be:
- 6 months for a worker exercising functions of clerical nature and;
- 3 months for other workers.
The period of probation of a skilled worker can be extended by an additional period of 3 months if it has not been possible to determine the the quality of the work within the first 3 months' period of probation. If the employment of a probationer is terminated but s/he is employed by the same employer within the next three years, s/he is exempted from the period of probation previously completed (sec. 4(9) LA).

Obligación de motivar el despido No

Remarks

The LA distinguishes between several ways of termination of employment by the employer namely: 'dismissal' (for misconduct), 'discharge' (for incapacity), 'retrenchment' (for economic reasons) and 'termination' (without cause). Justification is only required in the first three instances (secs. 22, 23, 24, 26 LA)
Therefore in cases other than misconduct, physical or mental incapacity, or economic dismissal, the employer is not required to provide any justification.

Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): ninguno

Remarks

The LA distinguishes between several ways of termination of employment by the employer namely:
- 'dismissal' : when the worker is found guilty of a misconduct or convicted for criminal offence: secs. 23 and 24 LA)
- 'discharge from service' for reasons of physical
or mental incapacity or continued ill-health certified by a registered medical practitioner (sec. 22 LA),
- 'retrenchment' for economic reasons (sec. 21 LA) and
- 'termination' without cause (sec. 26 LA).
Therefore in cases other than misconduct, physical or mental incapacity, or economic reasons, the employer can lawfully terminate any employment contract without having to justify such termination by a valid reason provided that he/she complies with the statutory notice and severance pay requirements (sec. 26 LA).

Motivos prohibidos: afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales

Remarks

No general list of prohibited grounds for discrimination of or dismissal in the LA.
However, sec. 195(d) prohibits the dismissal, discharge, removal from employment or the threat to undertake such actions by reason that the worker is or proposes to become, or seeks to persuade any other person to become a member or officer of a trade union, or participates in the promotion, formation or activities of a trade union.
Note also that sec. 228 LA prohibits the employer to discharge, dismiss or terminate the employment of a worker while proceedings connected to an industrial disputes are pending (before the labour jurisdictions or an arbitrator) except with the permission of that body and for reasons of misconduct not connected with such dispute.
- Sec. 228 LA prohibits the employer from discharging, dismissing or terminating the employment of a worker while proceedings connected to an industrial disputes are pending (before the labour jurisdictions or an arbitrator) except with the permission of that body and for reasons of misconduct not connected with such dispute. Furthermore, any discharge, dismissal or punishment for misconduct of a trade union officer while such proceedings are pending is prohibited, except with prior authorization from the Labour Court (sec. 228(2) LA).

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores

Remarks

- No real special protection for pregnant women or women on maternity leave against termination of employment. However, sec. 50 LA "Restriction on termination of employment of a woman in certain cases" provides that: "If any notice or order of discharge, dismissal, removal or termination of employment is given by an employer to a woman within a period of six month before and eight weeks after her delivery and such notice or order is given without sufficient cause, she will not be deprived of any maternity benefit to which she would have become entitled under this chapter."
- Sec. 228 LA prohibits the employer from discharging, dismissing or terminating the employment of a worker while proceedings connected to an industrial disputes are pending (before the labour jurisdictions or an arbitrator) except with the permission of that body and for reasons of misconduct not connected with such dispute. Furthermore, any discharge, dismissal or punishment for misconduct of a trade union officer while such proceedings are pending is prohibited, except with prior authorization from the Labour Court (sec. 228(2) LA).

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

- Retrenchment: sec. 20(1) LA
- Dismissal (on the ground of serious misconduct): sec. 24 LA
- Termination by the employer with notice without a cause: sec. 26(1) LA.

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

- In the event of a retrenchment, the employer shall give the employee one month's notice (sec. 20(1) LA).

- In the event of termination without cause, the employer shall give the employee the following notice period:
1) For permanent workers:
- 120 days' notice if the worker is paid on a monthly basis;
- 60 days' notice to other workers.
2) For temporary workers (when termination is not due to the completion, cessation, abolition or discontinuance of the temporary work for which he was appointed):
- 30 days' notice if the temporary worker is paid on a monthly basis;
- 14 days' notice to other temporary workers.

- No statutory notice requirements for conduct and capacity-related dismissals (referred to respectively in the LA as 'dismissal' and 'discharge'), except for dismissals based on unjustified absence from the work place. (In case a worker remains absent from work without notice for at least 10 days, the employer shall serve him or her a notice to explain the reasons for the absence. If the worker does not submit a written justification for the absence or returns to work within 17 days, he or she is considered terminated, sec. 27(3A)).

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • Todos: 0 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • Todos: 0 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • Todos: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, pagados mensualmente: 4 meses.
  • trabajadores permanentes, no pagados mensualmente: 2 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, pagados mensualmente: 1 meses.
  • trabajadores temporales, no pagados mensualmente: 0.47 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

The employer can opt for paying the wages for the period of notice in the following cases:
- Retrenchment (sec. 20(1) LA)
- Termination by the employer without a cause (that is termination by the employer otherwise than by dismissal (conduct-related), discharge (capacity-related) or retrenchment) (sec. 26(3) LA)

Notificación a la administración: No

Remarks

Except in the event of an economic dismissal (retrenchment): sec. 20(2)b) LA, dealt below under "Procedural requirement for collective dismissals for economic reasons".

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

Except in the event of an economic dismissal (retrenchment): sec. 20(2)b) LA, dealt below under "Procedural requirement for collective dismissals for economic reasons".

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): No statutory definition of collective dismissals. The LA regulates retrenchment which is defined as "the termination by the employer of services of workers, not as a measure of punishment but on the ground of redundancy".

Remarks

See secs. 2(xi) and 20 LA.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): No

Remarks

There is no obligation as such on the part of the employer to undertake consultations with the worker's representatives on intended retrenchments. Sec. 20(2)b) LA only requires that the collective bargaining agent (trade union) be notified.
Note however, that the LA recognizes the right of the collective bargaining agent in relation to an establishment to undertake collective bargaining with the employer on matters connected with the employment, non-employment, non-employment, the term of employment or the conditions of work (sec. 24(e) LA).
In addition, if an industrial dispute is likely to arise between the employer and the workers (which can be the case for example in the event of retrenchments) the law recognizes the right of the collective bargaining agent to communicate his or its views in writing to the other party, which shall in turn arrange a meting for collective bargaining on the issue with a view to reaching an agreement (sec. 210 on the settlement of industrial disputes).
An industrial dispute is defined in the LA as "any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any
person" (sec. 2 (Lxii) LA).

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Sec. 20(2)(b) LA: No worker who has been in continuous service for at least one year shall be retrenched by the employer unless- (b) a copy of the notice is sent to the chief Inspector or any other officer authorized by him and also to the collective bargaining agent in the establishment, if any.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Sec. 20(2)(b) LA: A copy of the notice of retrenchment of a worker who has been employed for at least a year shall be sent to the collective bargaining agent in the establishment, if any.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): Si

Remarks

Sec. 20(4) LA: application of the LIFO ("last in, first out ") rule in the absence of any agreement between the employer and the worker.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): No

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: Si

Remarks

Sec. 21 LA: preference for re-hiring shall be given to retrenched workers when the employer decides to hire workers within one year from the date of the retrenchment.

Indemnización por despido:

Remarks

Severance pay is payable to a worker who has been continuously employed for at least one years in the event of a:
- Termination based on physical or mental incapacity or continued ill-health(referred to as 'discharge') (sec, 22(2) LA)
- Termination with notice without any reason (sec. 26(4) LA).
In both cases, severance pay amounts to 30 days' wages for each completed year of servicee or for any part thereof in excess of six months: see sec. 2(x) LA on the definition of gratuity). Additionally, workers are entitled to 45 days' wages for each completed year above 10 completed years (see sec. 2(x) LA).
In case a worker is dismissed for misconduct other than theft, misappropriation, fraud, embezzlement, breaking in the establishment, „riot“ or “disordeliness“, they are entitled to a severance pay of at least 15 days' wages for each completed year of service (sec. 23(3) LA).

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 4 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 10 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 20 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

Remarks

Sec. 20(2): In the event of retrenchment, any worker with at least one year of continuous service with an employer shall be entitlement to a payment of at least 30 days' wages for each completed year of service (or for any part thereof in excess of six months: see sec. 2(x) LA on the definition of gratuity)

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 1 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 2 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 4 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 5 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 10 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 20 meses

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

1) Termination on the ground of misconduct (referred to as 'dismissal'): no severance pay
2) Termination for reasons of physical or mental incapacity or continued ill-health(referred to as 'discharge'): severance pay = 30 days' wages for each year of service.
3) Termination with notice without any reason: severance pay = 30 days' wages for each year of service.
4) Termination based on economic reasons (referred to as 'retrenchment'): redundancy payment = 30 days' for each year of service.

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: Si

Remarks

The LA does not specify the powers of the Court with respect to awarding damages. Sec. 33(4) LA refers to the power of the Court to "make such orders as it may deem just and proper". This includes awarding damages.

Posibilidad de readmisión: Si

Remarks

Sec. 33(5) LA: The Labour court, may amongst other relief, direct reinstatement of the complainant in service, either with or without back wages and convert the order of dismissal, removal or discharge to any other lesser punishment (i.e: suspension, warning, downgrading to a lower post).

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Remarks

Conciliation is only foreseen for the settlement of industrial disputes (sec. 210 LA).
An industrial dispute is defined as "any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any person" (sec. 2(Lxii) LA). An industrial dispute is deemed to exist only if it has been raised by a collective bargaining agent or an employer (sec. 209 LA).

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Note that only workers who have been "discharged", "dismissed" or "retrenched" (i.e. workers who have been dismissed on grounds of incapacity, misconduct or redundancy) can seek redress for grievance related to dismissal in the courts.
Workers who have been "terminated" by simple notice (with no reason given) cannot challenge such termination in court unless they claim a breach of the requisite requirements (notice and severance pay) or allege that their termination was based on their trade union membership or activity (sec. 33(9) LA).
- The worker must start a grievance procedure by submitting his/her complaint to the employer, in writing within 30 days of being informed the cause of such grievance. The employer has to inquire into the matter and inform the worker of his/her decision in writing within 15 days (sec. 33(1) &(2) LA ).
- If the employer fails to give an answer or if the worker is not satisfied with the employer's statement, the worker can bring a complaint before the Labour Court within 30 days (sec. 33(3) LA). The Court shall issue a decision within 60 days following the filing of the case (sec. 216(11) LA).
- Appeals against the court's decision shall be lodged to the Labour Appellate Tribunal within 30 days of the court's order (sec. 33(6) LA).

Arbitraje: No

Remarks

The parties can only resort to arbitration in the event of an industrial dispute (sec. 210 LA) which "means any dispute or difference between employers and employers or between employers and workers or between workers and workers which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or the conditions of work of any person" (sec. 2(Lxii) LA) and which is deemed to exist only "if it has been raised by a collective bargaining agent or an employer" (sec. 209 LA).

Duración del procedimiento: 60du00eda(s) (statutory)

Remarks

- 60 days: statutory timeframe during which the labour court shall issue a decision once the case has been filed.

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

Note that only workers who have been "discharged", "dismissed" or "retrenched" (i.e. workers who have been dismissed on grounds of incapacity, misconduct or redundancy) can seek redress for grievance related to dismissal in the courts.
Workers who have been "terminated" by simple notice (with no reason given) cannot challenge such termination in court unless they claim a breach of the requisite requirements (notice and severance pay) or allege that their termination was based on their trade union membership or activity (sec. 33(9) LA).