Razones de utilización legítima de CDD: sin limitación para el primero CDD

Remarks

Art. 10 ECA
However, the employer will be requested to prove that he has objective and material reasons for issuing a FTC only when FTC have been concluded successively without any interruption imputable to the worker.

Número máximo de CDD consecutivos: 4

Remarks

Art. 10 bis (2) ECA

Duración máxima acumulativa de CDD consecutivos: 36meses

% de trabajadores bajo CDD: 8.2

Remarks

Eurostat, annual average (2009)
The figure refers to the percentage of employee of total number of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job).
Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
"A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Duración maxima del periodo de prueba (en meses): 12 meses

Remarks

White-collars: min. 1 month. The maximum duration is either 6 months or 12 months depending on the amount of the yearly wages: 6 months when the yearly wages are less than 35.638 EUR or 12 months when the yearly wages exceed 35.638 EUR (as of 1st January 2009): art. 67 ECA.

Obligación de motivar el despido No Motivos autorizados (despido justificado): ninguno

Remarks

According to sec. 37 ECA, either party can terminate a contract concluded for an unspecified period, provided that notice requirements are complied with.
This does not result in a total freedom to terminate the contract: it must be understood in light of the existence of prohibited grounds.

Motivos prohibidos: estado civil, embarazo, licencia de maternidad, enfermedad o accidente profesional temporal, raza, color, sexo, orientación sexual, religión, opinion política, origen social, nacionalidad, edad, afiliación sindical y actividades sindicales, discapacidad, situación económica, lengua, denuncia/ alerta, nacimiento, estado de salud, información genética, origen étnico

Remarks

While the employer is not obliged to give reasons for dismissal (except for just cause or in the case of certain protected workers), he or she cannot act in an arbitrary manner. In the event of a contested termination of employment, the burden is on the employer to prove that the termination is not unfair and it is up to the judge to render a decision.

Pursuant to art. 63 ECA will be considered unfair ('abusif') the dismissal of a blue-collar worker who has been engaged for an unspecified period if the reasons for the dismissal are unrelated to his or her skills or conduct or are not based on the operational requirements of the undertaking, establishment or service.

The applicable statutes do not define the concept of unfair dismissal with respect to white-collar workers. According to case law, dismissal is unfair if it is done in a malicious manner, with the intention of causing harm to the employee, or is effected in such a rash manner that it leaves no doubt as to the existence of bad faith.

In addition, 3 anti-discrimination Acts dated 10.05.2007, prohibit discrimination with respect to employment, including termination:
1) Sexual anti-discrimination Act (sex, pregnancy): art. 3 and 4
2) Racial anti-discrimination Act (race, colour, nationality): art. 3
3) Act concerning certain forms of discrimination (i.e.: age, sexual orientation, religion, social origin...): art. 3.

Trabajadores que gozan de una protección particular (fuero): representantes de los trabajadores, mujeres embarazadas o con licencia de maternidad

Remarks

* Pregnant women: prohibition of dismissal (art. 40 LA).
* Workers' representatives: see Act of 19 March 1991 establishing specific dismissal rules and procedures for workers' representatives on works councils and health, safety and working conditions committees.

Forma de la notificación del despido al trabajador: escrita

Remarks

Art. 37 (1) ECA

Plazo de preaviso:

Remarks

* Blue-collars:
Statutory notice period: art. 59 ECA
- 28 days (0.9 month) for less than 20 years of service.
- Notice period is multiplied by 2 from 20 years of service.

Collective Agreement No. 75 of 1999 (approved by royal order and applicable in the absence of derogatory notice period established by royal order or specific collective agreement): art. 2:
- less than 6 months of service: 28 days;
- between 6 months and less than 5 years: 35 days;
- between 5 years and less than 10 years: 42 days;
- between 10 years and less than 15 years: 56 days;
- between 15 years and less than 20 years: 84 days;
- over 20 years: 112 days.

* White-collars:
Statutory notice period: art. 82 ECA
Applicable when yearly wages do not exceed 29729 EUR (as of 01.01.09):
- less than 5 years of service: 3 months;
- 3 month-rise every 5 years of service.
Therefore, for those white-collar workers, the notice period to be given by the employer varies according to the length of service, as follows:
- from 0 to less than 5 years: 3 months
- from 5 to less than 10 years: 6 months
- from 10 to less than 15: 9 months
- from 15 to less than 20: 12 months
- from 20 to less than 25: 15 months
- from 25 to less than 30: 18 months.

When yearly wages exceed 29729 EUR, the notice period is to be agreed upon by the employer and the employee at the time of termination, or failing an agreement, by the Court. However, the notice period should not be less than the above-mentioned statutory period.

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses:

  • empleados: 3 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.17 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses:

  • empleados: 3 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.17 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años:

  • empleados: 3 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.17 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años:

  • empleados: 3 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.17 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años:

  • empleados: 6 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.4 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años:

  • empleados: 9 meses.
  • obreros: 0.93 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 1.87 meses.

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años:

  • empleados: 15 meses.
  • obreros: 1.87 meses.
  • obreros cubiertos por el Acuerdo Colectivo de Trabajo numero 75: 3.73 meses.

Indemnización sustitutiva de preaviso: Si

Remarks

Art. 39 (1) ECA
Payment in lieu of notice cannot however exceed 3 months' pay for blue-collars and 6 months' pay for white-collars.

Notificación a la administración: No

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Remarks

Except for protected workers.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Definición de despido colectivo (número de empleados afectados): Over a period of 60 days, at least:
1) 10 workers in undertakings with 20-99 workers;
2) 10% workers in undertakings with 100 - 300 workers;
3) 30 workers in undertakings with at least 300 workers.

Remarks

Art. 1, ROCD and 62 (5) APE.

Consultación previa con los sindicatos (representantes de los trabajadores): Si

Remarks

Art. 6 ROCD and 66 (1) APE.
See also: Collective Labour Agreement N° 24.

Notificación a la administración: Si

Remarks

Art. 7 RO 1976 and and 66 (2) APE.

Notificación a los representantes de los trabajadores: Si

Remarks

Art. 6 RO 1976 and 66 (1) APE.
See also: Collective Labour Agreement N° 24.

Aprobación de la administración publica o de organismos judiciales: No

Acuerdo de los representantes de los trabajadores: No

Reglas de prioridad para los despidos colectivos (consideraciones sociales, edad, años de servicio): No

Remarks

No criteria listed in the legislation nor in Collective Labour Agreements.
Art. 6 Collective Agreement N° 24 only states that criteria defined by the employer should be one of the elements to be communicated to the trade union representatives for consultation.

Obligación del empleador de considerar solucionés alternativas al despido (transferencia, formación...): Si

Remarks

No statutory provision.
Art. 6 Collective Labour Agreement No 24 provides for consultation with the trade union representatives on social measures. However, no formal adoption of a social plan is required.

The promotion of Employment Act of 13 February 1998 clarifies the obligation of employers to consult with workers' representatives and places an obligation on employers to analyze and formally respond to any proposals from workers' representatives.

Reglas de prioridad para la re-contratación: No

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Indemnización por despido por razones económicas:

duración de servicio ≥ 6 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 9 meses: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 1 año: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 2 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 4 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 5 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 10 años: 0 meses

duración de servicio ≥ 20 años: 0 meses

Notas / Comentarios

Notas

1) Individual dismissals (including for economic reasons): no statutory severance pay.
2) Collective dismissal: redundancy payment established by a national collective agreement (N°10 of 1973).

Compensación por despido injustificado - libre determinación de la Corte: No

Remarks

Except for white-collars (no statutory limitation).

Compensación por despido injustificado - límites legales (techo calculado en meses o método de calculo): Blue-collars: max. 6 months' wages
White-collars: free determination by the judges

Remarks

Blue-collars: art. 63 ECA

Posibilidad de readmisión: No

Remarks

Except for workers' representatives on works councils and health, safety and working conditions committees.

Conciliación previa obligatoria: No

Corte o Tribunal competente: tribunal del trabajo

Remarks

Art. 578 of the Judiciary Code

Arbitraje: No