FTC regulated: Yes

Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons

Remarks

Art. 76 LC provides that fixed-term contracts may be concluded:
- in cases where contracts for an indefinite period cannot be concluded with regard to the nature of the work, the conditions for its implementation or the interests of the employee;
- with the director, his/her deputies, or a chief accountant, and in the absence of the company's chief accountant - with the employee performing the functions of the chief accountant;
- in other cases as stipulated by law.

Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation

Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 60months

Remarks

Art. 75 LC provides that the employment contract may be concluded:
- for an indefinite period;
- for a specified period not exceeding five years;
- for the duration of a specific job.
If an employment contract does not stipulate the validity period, it is presumed that the contract is concluded for an indefinite period. (Art. 75 LC)

Maximum probationary (trial) period (in months): 3 months

Remarks

Art. 85 LC

Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Remarks

According to the Art. 100 LC the termination of the employment contract concluded for an indefinite period, as well as the termination of a fixed-term contract before its expiration by the employer must be justified.

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct, worker's capacity, economic reasons

Remarks

An employer is entitled to terminate an employment agreement with an employee only on the grounds provided in Article 100 LC, namely:
- Changes in technology, organisation of production and work, or a reduction of the scope of work resulting in a change in the number of staff or a change in the nature of the work, or the liquidation of the Company;
- Inconsistent job performance due to insufficient qualifications or for health reasons;
- Systematic violation by the employee of his or her labour duties;
- A single gross violation by the employee of his or her labour duties;
- Termination of an employment agreement with part time employees when they are replaced with full time employees;
- Termination of an employment agreement with the management of an enterprise in connection with a change in ownership.

Prohibited grounds: race, sex, religion, social origin, nationality/national origin, age, trade union membership and activities, language, property, conviction or failure to disclose a conviction

Remarks

Art. 6 LC: Prohibition of discrimination in employment.
Art. 25 LC: Additional employment guaranties for members of representative bodies.

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives, pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave, workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury

Remarks

Article 25 LC provides additional labor guarantees for workers’ representatives. They are protected from harassment by the employer in connection with their functions and activities. Imposture of disciplinary sanctions against workers’ representatives and the termination of labour relations with them at the initiative of the employer is prohibited without the prior consent of the local labor authorities.

Art. 100.7 LC prohibits termination of a labor contract at the initiative of the employer during worker’s temporary incapacity to perform work and during leave from work, except cases of complete liquidation of the enterprise.

Article 237 LC provides guarantees for pregnant women and women with children. Termination of an employment contract with pregnant women and women with children younger than three years old at the initiative of the employer is not allowed, except in cases of complete liquidation of the enterprise.

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks

Art. 102 LC

Notice period:

Remarks

Art. 102 LC provides for the following notice period: 2 months in cases of the termination due to changes in technology, production and labor organization, reduced volumes of work that resulted in changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, or in connection with the liquidation of the company as well as in connection with reaching the retirement age when the employee has the right to receive the state pension; 2 weeks when the termination occurred due to employees' incapability to perform the work because of lack of qualifications or health status; 3 days when terminated due to the employee's own culpable conduct (a single gross or a systematic violation of labour discipline).

However, art. 102 also states that the two-month and three-day notice period may be replaced by corresponding compensation at the employer's discretion. The two-week notice stipulated above shall not be given when an employment agreement is terminated due to the employee's inability to perform the duties of his or her job for health reasons where there is a medical certificate confirming that the job is contraindicated to the employee. In this case, the employee shall be paid compensation in the amount of two weeks' wages.

tenure ≥ 6 months:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 9 months:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 2 years:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 4 years:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 5 years:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 10 years:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

tenure ≥ 20 years:

  • All: 2 months.
  • All: 0.1 months.
  • All: 0.5 months.

Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

Remarks

According to the Art. 102 LC in cases of termination of employment by the employer the notice period can be replaced with the monetary compensation corresponding to the duration of notice, at the employer's discretion.

Notification to the public administration: Yes

Remarks

Art. 102 LC states that the employer is obliged to inform the local authority of labour, not later than two months before the termination, on the upcoming dismissal and to provide data of each employee, indicating his profession, qualifications and wages

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Art. 101 LC states that the termination of the employment contract by the employer is not allowed without the prior consent of the trade union committee or other representative body of employees, in the case when the obligation for such consent is provided by collective agreement.

The trade union committee or other representative body of employees must notify the employer in writing of its decision within ten days of receipt of the written submission on the intention of termination.
An employer may terminate an employment contract within one month from the date of the trade union's committee or other representative's body of employees decision to consent to the termination of employment.

Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned): There is no quantitative definition in the Labour Law.

Art. 100.1 states that the contract of employment can be terminated due to changes in technology, organisation of production and work, or a reduction of the scope of work resulting in a change in the number of staff or a change in the nature of the work, or the liquidation of the Company.

Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

Remarks

Art. 101.1 LC

Notification to the public administration: Yes

Remarks

Art. 102 LC

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Art. 101 LC

Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): Yes

Remarks

Art. 103 LC reads as following:

Upon the termination of the employment contract due to changes in technology, production and labor, reduced work that led to changes in the number of (state) employees, or the changing nature of work, the right to remain at work is granted to employees with higher skills and productivity.

In case of equal qualifications and productivity the employees preferred are:
1) workers with two or more dependents;
2) persons in a family where there are no other employees with an independent income;
3) workers with long experience in the enterprise;
4) employees that increase their skills on the job by the relevant specialty in higher and secondary special and professional educational institutions
5) persons who have received occupational injury or illness in the enterprise;
6) The war invalids, war veterans and persons equated to them;
7) persons who have received or suffered radiation sickness and other diseases associated with increased radiation, caused by the consequences of accidents at nuclear facilities, the disabled, for which a disability occurred as a consequence of accidents at nuclear facilities, participants of liquidation of these accidents and disasters, and as well as individuals evacuated or displaced from these areas and others, persons equated to them.

Collective agreement may provide for other circumstances under which there is a preference given for leaving workers employed. These circumstances are taken into account if the employees in accordance with the first and second parts of this article do not have a prior right to the abandonment of work.

Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): No

Priority rules for re-employment: No

Severance pay:

Remarks

Art. 109 LC states that the severance pay will be paid upon termination of the employment contract by the employer and it may not be less than the average monthly salary.

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Redundancy payment:

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 2 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Remarks

Art. 112 LC

However, when awarded a compensation consists of:
a compulsory payment during the period of forced absence ;
compensation for the additional costs associated with the appeal of the termination of the contract or transfer (expert advice, the cost of case management, etc.);
compensation of moral damages. The amount of compensation for moral damage is determined by the court with the assessment of the actions of the employer, but may not be less than the monthly salary of the employee. (Article 275 LC)

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks

Art. 111 LC states that in cases of illegal termination of the contract or illegal transfer to another job the employee must be restored to the previous work by the employer, the court or other competent authority.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks

Art. 260 LC states that Individual labour disputes are considered by the commissions for labour disputes, or by the district (city) courts.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Existing arbitration: No