FTC regulated: Yes

Valid reasons for FTC use: objective and material reasons


Art. 75 LC: The duration of a contract for a specified period is valid only:
* where the nature of the work performed so permits;
* if it is made for the purpose of temporarily replacing a worker who is on leave, on vacation or absent because of any temporary impediment; or
* in the other cases provided for in the LC.

Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation


No statutory limitation on renewals provided that the total duration does not exceed 1 year.
Contracts concluded for a job requiring special technical skills can however be renewed twice within a 3-year-period in the cases where vocational training is provided by the employer: art. 74 LC.

Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 12month(s)


Contracts may be made for an unspecified period, for a specified period of not more than one year, except in the case of services requiring special technical skills, in which case the duration may be stipulated for a maximum of three years: art. 74 LC.

% of workforce under FTC: 77


Statistics for 2007: includes contracts concluded for specified period (definido) 44.9 % and for a specified piece of work (obra determinada)
Source: Ministry of Labour (http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/estadisticas/Contratos.pdf)

Maximum probationary (trial) period (in months): 3 month(s)


Art. 78 LC: a probation period can be stipulated when the work requires certain aptitudes or special skills. The maximum duration of the probation period is three months, provided that it is expressly contained in the written contract of employment.

Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Valid grounds (justified dismissal):

Prohibited grounds: pregnancy, filing a complaint against the employer, race, sex, religion, political opinion, social origin, trade union membership and activities, disability, participation in a lawful strike, birth


No general prohibition of discrimination in the LC.
However, the Act No 11 of 22 April 2005 prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, birth, disability, sex, social condition, political ideas. See also art. 19 of the Constitution.
In the LC, dismissals based on trade union activities, participation to a strike, filing a complaint against the employer are considered "unfair practices against trade unionism and the worker's rights" (práctica desleales en contra del sindicalismo y de los derechos del trabajador) in art. 388 2), 3), 7).

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives, pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave

- On trade union protection (fuero sindical), see art. 381 -387 LC. The special protection applies to the following workers: the members of trade unions, where the unions are being established; the members of the executive committees of workers', trade unions' federations, confederations or central congresses, up to a maximum of 11 members, substitute members of the executive committee.
Art. 384 of the LC establishes a series of rules applicable to the duration of trade union immunity:
* for the members of trade unions in the course of formation: for three months following the date on which such association's registration is authorized;
* for titular and substitute members of executive committees (the latter if they enjoy trade union immunity) and trade union representatives: for one year running from the date on which they cease to hold office;
The protection of trade union immunity commences on the date on which the worker's name appears on the list of candidates for election, on condition that such list is communicated to the employer or to the Inspectorate of Labour, and provided that such protection does not cover a period of more than one month before the actual date of the elections. Elected candidates continue to enjoy trade union immunity even before they take office, and unsuccessful candidates are to continue to enjoy such protection for the entire month following the date of the election returns. If the communication referred to above is not made, immunity should be afforded to members of the executive committee and trade union representatives as from the date of their election.

- Maternity protection: see art. 106 LC.
An expectant mother may be dismissed only for valid reasons and with prior authorization of the judicial authorities. An expectant mother who receives notice of dismissal or of unilateral termination of her employment which has not been authorized by the competent labour court must submit to the employer or to any labour authority a medical certificate of her pregnancy within the 20 days of receipt of such notice of dismissal. On completion of this formality the employee is entitled to immediate reinstatement in her employment plus payment in full of her remuneration as from the date of the dismissal. If she allows the said 20-day period to expire without taking any action, she may submit the certificate and claim reinstatement at any time during the following three months, but in this case she is entitled only to back payment of her remuneration as from the date on which she submits the certificate. If the employer refuses to reinstate her, she may sue in the ordinary way for a reinstatement order.

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written


Art. 214 LC.

Notice period:


No statutory notice periods to be observed.

However, there is an exception for some specific categories of workers to which the "just cause" rule does not apply. Those workers can be dismissed without just cause provided that the employer gives 30 days' prior notice or pay the corresponding amount in addition to a payment amounting to compensation for unfair dismissal.
This rule applies to those workers with less than two years' uninterrupted service; domestic employees; permanent employees of small agricultural, fishing or manufacturing undertakings; seafarers serving on board vessels operating on international routes; apprentices; workers in retail sales establishments and in undertakings with five or fewer workers, except in the case of insurance establishments or real estate (art. 212 LC).

Pay in lieu of notice: No

Except for those workers listed in art. 212 LC to which the "just cause" requirement does not apply.

Notification to the public administration: No

Except for dismissals (individual and collective) on economic grounds: art. 215-216 LC Procedural requirements applicable to such dismissals are dealt with under the theme "Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons".

Notification to workers' representatives: No

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Except for dismissals (individual and collective) on economic grounds: art. 216 LC Procedural requirements applicable to such dismissals are dealt with under the theme "Procedural requirements for collective dismissals for economic reasons".
For dismissals based on any other authorized ground, the employer has the option of applying to the labour courts for prior authorization to dismiss. Such judicial authorization is however not compulsory.

Approval by workers' representatives: No

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