FTC regulated: Yes

Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation

Maximum number of successive FTCs: 2

Remarks

Before the amendments which took effect in 2012, Sec. 39 LC did not refer to any maximum number of successive FTC, but only to a maximum cumulative duration of 24 month.
In 2012, a new rule came into force stating that fixed term contracts can be agreed only twice (sec. 39.2 LC).
Also, maximum cumulative duration has been extended from 24 months to 36 months (sec. 39.2 LC).

Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 36months

Remarks

Before the amendments which entered into force in 2012, sec. 39 (2) provided for maximum duration of 24 months. In addition, 6 months were necessary between 2 fixed-term contracts. Also, the 24 months limitation did not
apply in cases listed in sec. 39 (3), i.e.: when the FTC is concluded for the purpose of temporary replacement of an absent employee, when there are serious operational reasons on the part of the employer or reasons relating to the special nature of work to be performed provided that the reasons are specified in a written agreement between the employer and the trade union organization.
With the new amendments, maximum cumulative duration has been extended up to 36 months (sec. 39.2 LC). Also, part of the section which called for 6 months time period necessary between 2 fixed term contracts has been deleted as well as the cases previously listed under sec. 39.3 LC.

% of workforce under FTC: 9.3

Remarks

Source: Eurostat, as of third trimester 2012.
The figure refers to the percentage of employee with a contract of limited duration (= temporary job) of total number of employee aged 15-74 years.
Eurostat data are based on the following definition:
"A job may be considered temporary if employer and employee agree that its end is determined by objective conditions such as a specific date, the completion of a task or the return of another employee who has been temporarily replaced (usually stated in a work contract of limited duration). Typical cases are: (a) persons with seasonal employment; (b) persons engaged by an agency or employment exchange and hired to a third party to perform a specific task (unless there is a written work contract of unlimited duration); (c) persons with specific training contracts."

Maximum probationary (trial) period (in months): 6 months

Remarks

Previously to the amendments which took effect in 2012 Sec. 35 LC provided for a trial period of 3 months. With the new rules trial period may not be longer than 3 consecutive months from the date when the employment relationship commences(sec 35.a), however the trial period has been extended for up to 6 months from the date of commencement of the employment relationship where it concerns a managerial employee (35.b).

Obligation to provide reasons to the employee: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 50 (4) LC

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): worker's conduct, worker's capacity, economic reasons

Remarks

Sec. 52 LC provides for a list of valid reasons for dismissal that relate to the worker's conduct, the worker's capacity, or economic reasons.

Prohibited grounds: marital status, pregnancy, maternity leave, family responsibilities, filing a complaint against the employer, temporary work injury or illness, race, colour, sex, sexual orientation, religion, political opinion, social origin, nationality/national origin, age, trade union membership and activities, disability, performing military or civil service, language, property, birth, state of health, ethnic origin

Remarks

Sec. 16(2) LC sets out general prohibition of any form of discrimination in labour relations. The terms, such as direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, persecution, an instruction to discriminate and/or incitement to discrimination, and the instances in which different treatment is permissible, are regulated in the Anti-Discrimination Act (2008).

Equality and non-discrimination in exercising the right to employment is also guaranteed under the Act on Employment (2004, as amended 2011). Sec. 4 provides for equal treatment of all natural persons exercising their right to employment, and prohibits any form of discrimination of persons exercising their right to employment.

The Anti Discrimination Act defines direct discrimination as an “act, including omission, where one person is treated less favourably than another is, has been or would be treated in a comparable situation, on grounds of race, ethnic origin, nationality, sex, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, belief or opinions. (Sec. 2 para 3).

Discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, maternity and paternity and on grounds of sexual identification shall also be considered to be discrimination on grounds of sex. (Sec. 2 para 4)

Harassment, sexual harassment, victimization, instruction to discriminate and inciting discrimination shall also be considered to be discrimination. (Sec. 2 para 2)

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives, pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave, workers with family responsibilities, workers performing military/alternative service, workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Remarks

Sec. 53 (1) LC establishes a prohibition of notice during a "protection period". That applies to:
* pregnancy
* maternity and parental leave
* recognized temporary inability to work due to illness or injury
* military obligations
* unpaid leave to exercise of a public office
* night workers temporary unfit
Note that except for pregnant women and employee on maternity or parental leave, the protection is not absolute (sec. 54 LC)
Sec. 61 (2) LC: Special protection for trade union's representatives: mandatory consent of the trade union prior to dismissal.

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks

Sec. 50(1) LC

Notice period:

Remarks

According to the Sec. 51 LC "The notice shall be at least 2 months".However with the amendments which came into force in 2012 one exception to the above mentioned rule has been added. Section 51.a LC now states: "Where notice has been given by an employee in connection with transfer of rights and obligations arising from the labour relations, it shall apply that his employment relationship will latest come to an end either on the day preceding the date when the transfer of the said rights and obligations takes effect or at the date when the transfer becomes effective."
No reference to the length of service.

tenure ≥ 6 months:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 9 months:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 2 years:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 4 years:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 5 years:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 10 years:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 20 years:

  • All: 2 months.

Pay in lieu of notice: No

Notification to the public administration: No

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 61 (1) LC. Notification is mandatory in both cases of ordinary dismissal and immediate termination (serious misconduct).

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Remarks

However, according to sec. 61 (2), (3), (4) LC approval by the trade union is requested when the dismissal or the immediate termination concerns a trade union member. In the absence of consent, such dismissal is void unless ruled otherwise by the Court.

Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned): Over a period of 30 days, at least:
1) 10 employees out of a total of 20 to 100 employees
2) 10% of employees out of a total of 101 to 300 employees
3) 30 employees out of a total of more than 300 employees

Remarks

Sec. 62(1) LC.

Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

Remarks

30 days in advance: sec. 62 (2) LC.

Notification to the public administration: Yes

Remarks

30 days in advance: sec. 62 (4) LC.

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 62 (2), (5) LC.

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): No

Remarks

No criteria listed in the legislation.
However sec. 62 (2) e) and 62 (4) state that the selection criteria should be one of the elements to be communicated to the labour office and to the trade union within the framework of the process of consultation.

Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): Yes

Remarks

Sec 62 (3) LC refers to the purpose of consultation being "to reach an agreement, in particular with regards to measures aiming at prevention or reduction of collective dismissals, the mitigation of their adverse implications for employees, especially the possibility of their placement in suitable jobs at the other employer's places of work".
However, the formal adoption of a social plan is not a requirement.

Priority rules for re-employment: No

Severance pay:

Remarks

No statutory severance pay. The pay referred to under Sec. 67(1) LC [referring back to Sec. 52 LC] is addressed under redundancy payment below.

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Redundancy payment:

Remarks

Before the amendment which came into force in 2012, Sec. 67 LC referred to "an amount of at least three times the average earnings" for economic dismissal. New amendments effective as of 2012 state that upon terminating employment that lasted less than one year, employees will be entitled to severance equal to a minimum of their average monthly earnings. If employment lasts at least one year but less than two, employees will be entitled to severance equal to a minimum of double their average earnings. employment lasts at least two years, employees will be entitled to severance corresponding to a minimum of triple their average earnings.

tenure ≥ 6 months: 1 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 1 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 2 months

tenure ≥ 2 years: 3 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 3 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 3 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 3 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 3 months

Notes / Remarks

Notes

1) dismissal based on the worker's conduct or capacity: no severance pay
2) dismissal (individual and collective) for economic reasons: redundancy payment
3) dismissal of an employee who is not allowed to perform his work due to an industrial injury or occupational disease: severance pay (at least 12 months) (sec. 67(2) LC)

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 69 (1) LC

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 69 (1) LC.
As a consequence of a court's decision of the invalidity of termination of the employment relationship by the employer, continuation of that relationship is the rule, unless the employee has no interest in further continuation.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks

Sec. 72 LC refers to the competent Court. No labour courts in the Czechia.

Existing arbitration: No