FTC regulated: Yes

Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation

Remarks

Subject to correct interpretation of the 98(I)/2003 Act (available only in original language) that transposes the Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 25 June 1999 concerning the framework agreement on fixed-term work.
Article 7 of TEA - completion of a task is temporary and the particularity of the ongoing task justifies the contract's fixed duration


Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation

Remarks

Subject to correct interpretation of the 98(I)/2003 Act (available only in original language) that transposes the Council Directive 1999/70/EC of 25 June 1999 concerning the framework agreement on fixed-term work.

Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 30months

Remarks

Under Article 7 of the Fixed-Term Employees (Prohibition of Discrimination) Law 2003 (N98(I)/2003), when an employee is employed on a fixed-term contract for 30 months or more, the contract is regarded for all purposes to be permanent and any provision in the contract that limits its duration will be inapplicable unless the employer can prove that employment under a fixed-term contract can be justified for objective reasons.

Maximum probationary (trial) period (in months): 24 months

Remarks

Sec. 3 and 9 TEA.

Articles 9 - It shall further be understood that no probationary period shall be longer than one hundred and four weeks (24 months), and any probationary period longer than 26 weeks shall fall within this reservation by means of a letter of agreement between the employer and the employer at the time of the entry into force of the employer's employment.
(2) In all cases before the Labour Court, a dispute under this Article shall be presumed, until proven otherwise, that the employment was not on a trial basis.

Obligation to provide reasons to the employee No

Remarks

Only for collective dismissals is justification explicitly requested in the legislation.
(sec. 21 TEA (notification to the labour administration) and sec.4-5 CDA (consultation with the trade union representatives).
No such provision exists with regard to individual dismissals based on the worker's conduct or capacity.

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): economic reasons, worker's conduct, worker's capacity

Remarks

Sec. 5 TEA. As a general rule, dismissal is deemed unfair unless the employer proves the existence of one of the reasons exhaustively listed in the legislation.
"These are:
- the employee fails to carry out his or her work in a reasonably efficent manner,
- the employee becomes redundant,
- termination is due to an act of god or force majeure,
- the contract is for a fixed-term and has expired or the employee has reached the normal age of retirement,
- the employment relationship cannot be expected to continue (the employee is guilty of gross misconduct, a criminal offence or immoral behaviour in the course of his or her duties, the employee repeatedly disregards his or her work and duties)"
(see European Commission, Termination of Employment Relationship - Legal situation in the following Member States of the European Union: Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia, 2007, p. 51.)

Prohibited grounds: marital status, pregnancy, maternity leave, filing a complaint against the employer, race, colour, sex, religion, political opinion, social origin, nationality/national origin, trade union membership and activities, disability, parental leave, participation in a lawful strike

Remarks

Sec. 6 TEA
See also, European Commission Study, TER, 2007, p.56.

Workers enjoying special protection: pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave, workers with family responsibilities

Remarks

See: Maternity Protection Act (No. 100(I)/97, as amended in 2011), sec. 4:
Prohibition to give notice for termination to pregnant women after the announcement of pregnancy and up until 3 months after the expiry of the maternity leave and to women on adoption leave. However, this does not apply when the employed woman is found guilty of a serious offence or behaviour justifying termination of the employment relationship, when the undertaking ceases its activities, or when the contract period has come to an end (sec. 4B)

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks

Article 9, paragraph 5, of TEA.

Notice period:

Remarks

Articles 9 of TEA.
Notice to be given to the employee (except in cases giving rise to summary dismissal) is established according to the length of service, as follows:

9.-(1) On or after the minimum period of notice given by the employer to the employee shall be as follows:
(a) where the employee has been employed continuously for 26 or more weeks but less than 52, a period of one week;
(b) where the employee has been employed continuously for 52 or more weeks but less than one hundred and four, a period of two weeks;
(c) where the employee has been employed continuously for a hundred and four-and-a-half weeks but less than one hundred and fifty-six, a period of four weeks;
(d) where the employee has been employed continuously for a hundred and fifty-a-week but less than two hundred and eight, a period of five weeks;
(e) where the employee has been continuously employed for two hundred eight weeks or more but less than two hundred and fifty-nine weeks, a period of six weeks;
(f) where the employee has been continuously employed for two hundred and sixty weeks or more but less than three hundred and eleven weeks, a period of seven weeks;
(g) where the employee has been continuously employed for three hundred and twelve weeks or more, a period of eight weeks.

tenure ≥ 6 months:

  • All: 0.25 months.

tenure ≥ 9 months:

  • All: 0.25 months.

tenure ≥ 2 years:

  • All: 1 months.

tenure ≥ 4 years:

  • All: 1.5 months.

tenure ≥ 5 years:

  • All: 1.75 months.

tenure ≥ 10 years:

  • All: 2 months.

tenure ≥ 20 years:

  • All: 2 months.

Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

Remarks

Article 11 TEA

11.-(1) An employer who gives a warning to an employee has the right to claim rather than the employer as they accept payment instead of notice. This payment shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of the Third Board:
It shall be understood that where an employer exercises his right under this subparagraph, the employee shall, for the purposes of Parts II and IV, be regarded as employed until the expiry of the notice period which he would have received if he had not received payment instead.

If the worker accepts a new position in the course of the prior notice, the payment would be limited according to when a new employment contract starts.

Notification to the public administration: No

Notification to workers' representatives: No

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned): At least, over a period of 30 days:
1) 10 employees in undertakings with 20 to 99 employees;
2) 10 % of the employees in undertakings with 100 to 299 employees;
3) 30 employees in undertakings with at least 300 employees.

Remarks

Sec. 2 CDA

Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

Remarks

Sec. 4 & 5 CDA

Notification to the public administration: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 6 CDA.
Sec. 21 TEA.

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 4 & 5 CDA

Article 4:
(2) Consultations will cover at least the following topics:
(a) Possible ways and means of avoiding collective redundancies, or reducing the number of affected employees, and
(b) the ways and means of mitigating the consequences of collective redundancies by recourse to social measures aimed, inter alia, at re-employment or retraining of redundant workers.

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): No

Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): Yes

Remarks

Sec. 4 CDA

Priority rules for re-employment: Yes

Remarks

Sec. 22 TEA (within 8 months following redundancy and subject to the operational needs of the enterprise)

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Redundancy payment:

Remarks

Provided he has completed 104 weeks of continuous service, an employee who is dismissed on economic grounds is entitled to redundancy payments from the Redundancy Fund which is wholly financed by contributions from employers under the social insurance scheme. According to sec. 18 and the first schedule of the TEA, redundancy payment is calculated as follows:
* 2 weeks' wages for each year of service up to four year;
* 2,5 weeks' wages for each year of service from 5 to 10;
* 3 weeks' wages for each year of service from 11 to 15;
* 3,5 weeks' wages for each year of service from 16 to 20;
* 4 weeks' wages for each year of service beyond 20 years.
Redundancy payment is limited to 75,5 weeks' wages.

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 2 years: 1 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 2 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 2.63 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 5.75 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 13.88 months

Notes / Remarks

Notes

1) Dismissal based on the employee's conduct or capacity: no statutory severance pay.
2) Economic dismissal: redundancy payment.

According to article 5 TEA, Law 24/1967 - no payment is due for fair dismissals.
Article 19 of TEA provides the exceptions employers are exempted totally or partially to pay redundacies, such as when workers have already achieved pensionable age, refuses to participate in vocational training or have been employed again in another position.

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: No

Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method): Statutory compensation for unfair dismissal is calculated following the scheme of redundancy payment. It varies according to the length of service and is limited to 24 months, except when the worker has achieved pensionable age.

Remarks

(Note that an employee is entitled to compensation for unfair dismissal provided he or she has been employed for more than 26 weeks (extended to 104 weeks if agreed by the parties at the conclusion of the contract) and he has not reached the age of 65)

Pursuant to schedule 4 of the TEA, statutory compensation is established as follows:
* Max. 2 weeks' wages for each year of service up to 4 years;
* max. 2.5 weeks' wages for each year of service from 5 to10;
* max. 3 weeks' wages for each year of service from 11 to 15 years;
* max. 3.5 weeks' wages for each year of service from 16 to 20 years
* max. 4 weeks' wages for each year of service from 21 to 25 years.
Compensation is limited to 24 months' wages.

The Industrial Disputes Court may take into account additional factors.


Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks

Article 3 (1) TEA.

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: No

Remarks

No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed / no information in the secondary sources.

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): ordinary courts

Remarks

Sec. 2 and 3 TEA.
The Industrial Dispute Court has jurisdiction over cases of unfair dismissals (Proceedings must be initiated within 1 year from the date of dismissal).
Alternatively, the employee may institute proceedings before the civil courts for breach of the employment contract (wrongful dismissal). They must be initiated within six years following the date of termination of employment.

Existing arbitration: No

Remarks

No statutory provision in the legislation reviewed / no information in the secondary sources.

Burden of Proof: both

Remarks

The burden of proof is on the employer unless the cause of action is constructive dismissal case in which the employee must prove the reason for the dismissal.