Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court:
Art. 82 Labour Code provides that if a termination based on valid grounds is challenged in court and the employer fails prove the cause that founded the worker's dismissal, the worker shall have the right to be paid the amount of the prior notice, the unemployment assistance that may correspond, and, as well, severance pay and wages that would be received due to the termination of the contract until the date in which, in accordance with the legal terms to process and resolve, the conviction against the employer should have been final. The judge might also determine the payment of compensation for damages.
Compensation for unfair dismissal - Are there legal limits?:
See article 82 of Labour Code. The court might defined compensation for damages, in addition to the correspondent severance pay and prior notice.
Compensation for unfair dismissal - Legal limits (ceiling in months or calculation method):
See Article 82 of Labour Code and rules for severance pay.
The reinstatement of the worker proceeds only when requested at the judicial level and when it is demonstrated that the worker has been unjustifiably dismissed for discriminatory reasons or in cases in which the worker has a special protection against dismissal, the employer did not process and did not obtain the corresponding judicial or administrative authorization prior to the application of the disciplinary dismissal.
Additionally, the worker may request that the employer be ordered to pay wages as long as he is not reinstated in his job.
Preliminary mandatory conciliation:
Competent court(s) / tribunal(s):
Article 430 of Labour Code
Art. 218 Labour Code: The Labour Tribunals and/or The Conciliation and Decision Boards (junta de conciliación y decisión,) have jurisdiction over claims of unfair dismissal. The "juntas de conciliación y decisión" which are tripartite bodies and are integrated into the "Jurisdiccion Laboral".
The worker can submit their differences to an arbitration in administrative headquarters before the Ministry of Labor and Social Security or in judicial headquarters before the labour courts and in the Centers for Alternate Conflict Resolution, which are private centers duly registered with the Ministry of Justice (Law on Alternate Resolution of Conflicts and Promotion of Social Peace, Law No. 7727 of December 9, 1997 and art. 456 LC).
Burden of Proof:
Article 317 of Civil Procedure Code.