FTC regulated: Yes

Valid reasons for FTC use: no limitation

Remarks

No valid reasons are listed in the LC for the conclusion of fixed term contracts with a specified term.
However, Art. 108 LC provides that FTC with an unspecified term can be concluded:
- to temporarily replace a worker;
- to carry out seasonal work;
- in the event of unusual activity of the enterprise.
Art. 108 LC (last para.) adds that in order to avoid any ambiguity, the employer must at the time of hiring, communicate all elements likely to enlighten the worker on the approximate duration of the contract.

Maximum number of successive FTCs: no limitation

Remarks

See Art. 107 and Art. 105 (2) LC on successive FTCs.
FTCs with a specified term ("contrats de travail à terme precis") can be renewed without any limitation provided that the total cumulative duration does not exceed 2 years.

Contracts with an unspecified term (in the event of seasonal work, temporary replacement of a worker, temporary increase volume of work) can be renewed without any limitation (Art. 109 LC).

Maximum cumulative duration of successive FTCs: 24months

Remarks

See Art. 107 and Art. 105 (2) LC on successive FTC
Fixed-term contracts with a specified term ("contrats de travail à terme precis") can be renewed without any limitation provided that the total cumulative duration does not exceed 2 years.
The 2 year-limitation also applies to the conclusion of a single FTC (Art. 103 (3) LC).

However, this 2-year limitation does not apply to contracts with an unspecified term (in the event of seasonal work, temporary replacement of a worker, temporary increase volume of work): Art. 108 and Art. 110 (2) LC.

Maximum probationary (trial) period (in months): 6 months

Remarks

Art. 122 LC:
The duration of the probationary period varies according to the worker's category, as follows:
- 8 days for hourly, daily, weekly and fortnightly paid workers;
- 1 month for monthly paid workers;
- 2 months for first-line supervisors;
- 3 months for executive staff.
It can be renewed once.
(6 months = max. probationary period for executives including renewal)

Obligation to provide reasons to the employee No

Remarks

No such obligation expressly provided in the LC.

Valid grounds (justified dismissal): any fair reasons

Remarks

Art. 144 LC: Any dismissal based on motives which are not real and justified ("réels et fondés") are null.
Art. 152 LC: Dismissals carried out without a legitimate motive ("motif légitime") as well as dismissals based on the worker's opinions, his or her trade union activities or membership to a trade union are unfair ("abusifs").
Art. 142 LC: Employees can be dismissed on economic or personal grounds (physical or professional incapacity or misconduct).

Prohibited grounds: maternity leave, filing a complaint against the employer, temporary work injury or illness, religion, political opinion, trade union membership and activities, disability, performing military or civil service, participation in a lawful strike, HIV status

Remarks

- No worker can be punished or be otherwise prejudiced in his/her career on the grounds his or her opinions as to politics, political, trade-unions or religion (Art. 9 LC).
In addition constitute an unfair dismissal ("licenciement abusif"), any dismissal based on the employee's opinion, trade union activities and trade union membership or non-membership (Art. 152 LC).
- It is not permitted to dismiss an employee on maternity leave (Art. 253 LC)
- Any discrimination in employment on the basis of physical or mental disability is prohibited (Art. 266 LC).
- Any dismissal based on the HIV/AIDS status of the employee is null and gives right to compensation (Art. 315 LC)
- Dismissal based on the worker's participation in a lawful strike is void (Art. 378 LC).
- On filing a complaint or participation in proceedings against the employer, see Art. 152 LC
- Note that according to Art. 10 LC "the law ensures equal opportunities for everyone in employment without discrimination of any kind".

In addition the LC provides that the employment contract is suspended in certain circumstances, such as:
- the enterprise is temporarily closed down because the employer is performing compulsory military duties;
- the worker is performing compulsory military duties;
- absence of the employee as a consequence of a professional injury of disease;
- absence of the worker not exceeding 6 months in the event of non-professional injury or disease.;
- absence during maternity leave;
- absence due to police custody or pre-trial detention;
- the worker is absent because he or she is exercising a political mandate (Art. 133 LC).

According to Art. 152 LC pertaining to "abusive terminations", it is unfair for the employer to refuse to reintegrate the employee upon the expiry of the suspension period.

Workers enjoying special protection: workers' representatives, pregnant women and/or women on maternity leave, workers performing military/alternative service, workers on temporary leave following an occupational disease or a work injury, workers holding an elected position or discharging a public function

Remarks

Art. 89 LC: Any dismissal of a workers' representative is subject to prior approval by the Labour Inspector.
Art. 253 LC: An employee on maternity leave cannot be dismissed.

The LC provides that the employment contract is suspended in certain circumstances, such as:
- the enterprise is temporarily closed down because the employer is performing compulsory military duties;
- the worker is performing compulsory military duties;
- absence of the employee as a consequence of a professional injury of disease.
- absence of the worker not exceeding 6 months in the event of non-professional injury or disease.
- absence during maternity leave
- absence due to police custody or pre-trial detention
- the worker is absent because he or she is holding an elected position or discharging a public function (art.133 LC).
According to art. 152 LC, on "abusive terminations", it is unfair for the employer to refuse to reintegrate the employee upon the expiry of the suspension period.

Notification to the worker to be dismissed: written

Remarks

Art. 138 LC.

Notice period:

Remarks

Art. 148 LC:
The duration of the notice period varies according to the worker's category as follows:
- 8 days for workers paid on a hourly, daily, weekly, fortnightly or piece rate basis;
- 1 month for workers paid on a monthly basis;
- 2 months for first-line supervisors ("agents de maîtrise") and similar positions;
- 3 months for managerial positions ("cadres").

tenure ≥ 6 months:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 9 months:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 2 years:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 4 years:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 5 years:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly, daily or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 10 years:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

tenure ≥ 20 years:

  • managerial and similar positions: 3 months.
  • monthly paid workers: 1 months.
  • first-line supervisors and technicians: 2 months.
  • fortnightly, weekly or hourly paid workers: 0.27 months.

Pay in lieu of notice: Yes

Remarks

Art. 151 LC.

Notification to the public administration: No

Remarks

Except in the event of a dismissal of a workers' representative for which prior authorization of the Labour Inspector is required: Art. 89 LC.

Notification to workers' representatives: No

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Remarks

Except in the event of a dismissal of a worker's representatives for which prior authorization of the Labour Inspector is required: Art. 89 LC.

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Definition of collective dismissal (number of employees concerned): Collective dismissal means termination of the employment contracts of all or part of the staff on economic grounds.
Economic grounds relate to reorganization, reduction of termination of the business activity.

Remarks

Art. 142 LC.

Prior consultations with trade unions (workers' representatives): Yes

Remarks

Art. 143 LC.
Negotiations shall not exceed 30 days.

Notification to the public administration: Yes

Remarks

Art. 143 LC: consultation with the workers' representatives in the presence of the Labour Inspector.

Notification to workers' representatives: Yes

Remarks

Art. 143 LC.

Approval by public administration or judicial bodies: No

Remarks

Art. 143 LC refers to the sole presence of the Labour Inspector during the negotiation process in the event of any economic dismissal.
However, there is a Government Order of 1973 (Ordonnance No. 73/093) that requires in art. 1 prior authorization of the Labour Inspector in the event of any collective dismissal.
Under the new law (LC 2009), it seems that the prior authorization is no longer required.

Approval by workers' representatives: No

Priority rules for collective dismissals (social considerations, age, job tenure): Yes

Remarks

Art. 143 LC: the selection criteria are: professional skills, seniority, family responsibilities.
In any cases, priority should be given to professional skills.
Note also that according to Art. 271 LC, in the event of collective dismissal for economic reasons or any other reason, the employer must make every effort to preserve the employment of disabled workers.

Employer's obligation to consider alternatives to dismissal (transfers, retraining...): Yes

Remarks

Art. 143 LC: During the consultation process, the parties, in the presence of the Labour Inspector shall look for all alternative measures.

Priority rules for re-employment: No

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Redundancy payment:

tenure ≥ 6 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 9 months: 0 months

tenure ≥ 1 year: 0 months

tenure ≥ 2 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 4 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 5 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 10 years: 0 months

tenure ≥ 20 years: 0 months

Notes / Remarks

Notes

No statutory severance pay or redundancy payment in the LC.
Severance pay is usually regulated by collective agreements.

Art. 142 (3) LC refers to redundanices by providing that: "Dans le cas où un ou plusieurs travailleurs refusent par écrit d’accepter les mesures visées à l’alinéa précèdent, ils sont licenciés avec paiement du préavis et des indemnités de licenciement, s’ils en remplissent les conditions d’attribution."

Art. 153 and Art. 154 refer to severance pay.

Compensation for unfair dismissal - free determination by court: Yes

Remarks

Art. 156 LC: The amount of damages for unfair dismissal is fixed by the Court, in light of any circumstances establishing the existence and the extent of the harm incurred, including the local custom, the type and importance of the services rendered, the employee's seniority and age, any deductions or payments made to a retirement plan, and other established rights.

Reinstatement available: Yes

Remarks

Art. 144 (2) LC: Reinstatement is the primary remedy in the event of unjustified dismissal.
Art. 144 LC reads as follows: "Les licenciements prononcés par l'employeur dont les motifs ne sont pas réels et sérieux ne sont nuls et de nul effet. En cas de licenciement injustifié, si l'annulation de celui-ci et ou la réintégration du travailleur ne sont pas possibles, l'employeur est tenu de verser au travailleur en sus des droits légaux, des dommages- intérêts."

Preliminary mandatory conciliation: Yes

Remarks

Art. 346 LC: preliminary conciliation

Competent court(s) / tribunal(s): labour court

Remarks

Art. 354 LC: Labour tribunals (Tribunaux du Travail) have jurisdiction over individual labour disputes arising from the employment contract, labour conditions, hygiene and safety conditions, social security regime.

Existing arbitration: No

Remarks

No arbitration for individual disputes.
Arbitration can only be used for the settlement of collective labour disputes (art. 380 to 396 LC).