The EPLex database contains legal information on the regulation of temporary contracts and employment termination at the initiative of the employer. It covers over fifty elements of employment protection, grouped under nine themes. The information is based on regulation at the national level.

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Legal Coverage

Designates the categories of workers that the law applies to, while some laws are universal, many laws exempt certain occupations or workers in firms below a designated threshold of employees.

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Fixed-term contracts (FTCs)

Fixed-term contracts offer a lower level of employment protection as compared to contracts of indefinite duration. For this reason, many countries regulate their use.

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Probationary (trial) period

The probationary (trial) period is a period of employment during which employment protection legislation does not apply fully.  For this reason, national laws and regulations may place limits on its duration.

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Valid and prohibited grounds for dismissal

The employment of a worker shall not be terminated unless there is a valid reason for such termination. Dismissals may be prohibited on several grounds, such as discrimination.

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Workers enjoying special protection against dismissal

Some workers benefit from a higher level of protection against dismissal owing to their special status.

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Procedures for individual dismissal

In order to dismiss an employee, employers usually have to follow a set of legally mandated procedures, such as providing notice. Failure to follow such procedure may nullify the dismissal.

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Procedures for collective dismissal

When several workers are to be dismissed simultaneously or over a short period of time, employers may have to follow different procedures, specifically designed for this purpose.

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Redundancy and severance pay

Workers may be entitled to separation benefits from the employer. Usually the amount is linked to the reason for dismissal, the wage and the worker’s tenure in the enterprise.

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Redress

An essential element of a worker’s protection against unjustified dismissal is the right of appeal.  The national legislation often provides diverse remedies in case an employee wishes to contest the dismissal.

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EPLEX INDICATORS

All legal information contained in the EPLex database can be downloaded by theme.

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In addition, this legal information has been quantified by ILO lawyers and economists, to produce a series of synthetic, or aggregate, indicators of employment protection. The quantification was undertaken in order to facilitate statistical analysis and cross-country comparison of the legal data. The quantification methodology is based on international labour standards.

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